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WASSCE Animal Husbandry 2020 – Paper 2

WASSCE Animal Husb. 2020 Sect. B


1. (a) State four changes that take place after the chopped forage has been compressed
and covered in silage preparation.
(b) Give two reasons for carrying out each of the following practices in pasture management (i) weeding:
(ii) controlled burning
(iii) irrigation
(iv) fertilizer application
(c) State three functions of phosphorus in animal nutrition.
(d) Copy and complete the table below by ticking (V) the appropriate column to indicate the effect of low temperature on farm animals under the following parameter


Question 1

(a) Changes that take place in silage preparation
Water soluble carbohydrates get depleted.
Oxygen is used up leading to anaerobic conditions.
Carbon dioxide is produced.
Gradual compression of ensiling material occurs.
Rise in temperature of ensiled mass.
Bacteria ferment carbohydrate to produce lactic acid
PH is lowered.
Colour of forage changes to olive green.
Breakdown of protein to produce organic acids, amino acids etc
Loss of dry matter due to fermentation.
Digestibility of Nutrient Detergent fibre (NDF) increases.
Moisture content reduces.

(b) Reasons for carrying out various practices in pasture management.
(i) Weeding

Reduces competition for water.
Reduces competition for space.
Reduces completion for air.
Improves availability of nutrients for better growth of herbage.
Reduces incidence of pests.
Eases harvesting of forage and grasses.
Removes poisonous plants. Reduces incidence of diseases.
Improves aesthetic value of pasture.

(i)Controlled burning Kills

parasites, their eggs and larvae.
Destroys old herbage.
Promotes new growth of pasture grass.
Controls weed/ unwanted plants.
Controls vermin.
Adds potassium to the soil.
Exposes the top soil to facilitate replanting.

(iii) Irrigation
Maintains good growth of herbage.
Improved yield of herbage.
Ensures all year production.
Maintains the quality of pasture.
Improves nutrient availability.

(iv) Fertilizer application
For good growth of herbage.
For high carrying capacity.
For higher yield of forage.
For increased nutrient of pasture/ soil.
To check soil pH.

(c) Functions of phosphorus in Animal nutrition
For bone formation for proper growth.
For teeth formation.
For egg shell formation.
For acid-base balance.
For metabolism of fats and carbohydrate.
Contributes to protein synthesis.
Transports fatty acids.

(d) Effect of low temperature on certain parameters of farm animals Increases
(i) Pulse rate – Increases
(ii) Water intake – Decreases
(iii) Grazing time – Increases
(iv) Milk yield – Increases
(v) Feed intake – Increases

2. (a) Explain each of the following mating methods in farm animals:
(i) Hand mating
(ii) Pen mating
(iii) Pasture mating

(b) (i) Mention two advantages of each of the mating methods explained in (a)
(ii) Mention two disadvantages of each of the mating methods explained in (a) (c) Name two methods of collecting semen from a bull.

Question 2

(a) Explanation of mating methods in farm animals

(i) Hand mating: It is a mating method in which the farmer identifies a female on heat and brings it together with the male for mating, after which the female is returned to its pen.

(ii) Pen mating: In this method, a group of male and female animals are kept together in an acceptable ratio for mating in the same pen or enclosure.

(iii) Pasture mating: This is a method where male and female animals are allowed to run together whiles grazing on the field so that they can mate freely on the field.

(b) (i) Advantages of mating methods Hand mating
Mating can be scheduled and confirmed.
The line of offsprings can easily be identified.
Records can be adequately kept.
Indiscriminate mating is prevented.
It can prevent inbreeding.
The frequency of use of the male can be regulated.
Desired characteristics can be preserved.
Probable date of parturition can be easily calculated.
Less risk of injury to breeding animals.
Animals can be examined before and after mating.

Advantages of pen mating

Requires less labour.
Does not need experienced handlers.
Female animals are more aroused and receptive.
Degree of success in mating is higher than for hand mating.
Cost of keeping animals is lower.
Heat checking skills is not needed.

Advantages of pasture mating
Success of mating is high
Required low labour input
Low housing cost since both male and female animals are kept together
Females on heat are easily detected
Aggressive and high libido males can easily be identified
Decreased handling of methods
Easy to practice
(ii) Disadvantages of mating methods Hand Mating
It requires experienced handlers to detect animals on heat.
Cost of keeping male and female animals separately is very high.
It requires more labour. Male and female animals may reject each other, this may result in
unsuccessful mating.

Pen mating

Males may be overworked and become easily exhausted.
The sire may not be known and therefore the female animal may not accept it.
Competition among males may lead to injury or death of animals.
Date of parturition is less predictable ( that is, it makes it difficult to estimate the date of parturition).
Lower conception rate may occur.

Pasture Mating

Date of parturition is less predictable.
May be difficult to identify the sire/inbreeding rate could be very high.
Record keeping is very difficult. Mating/parturition cannot be planned.
May be difficult to preserve desirable characteristics.
Competition among males could lead to failed mating.
Undesirable characteristics may be transmitted to future generations.
Transmission of diseases is common.

(c)Methods of semen collection from bull

Use of dummy/teaser.
Use of artificial vagina.
Use of electro-ejaculator.
Use of had massage.

3.(a) State four ways in which diseases are of economic importance in animal production
(b) Give three examples of each of the following types of parasites of farm animals
(i) ectoparasites; (ii) endoparasites
(c) Stat five causes of low production of ruminants in West Africa.
(d) (i) Explain the term fodder crop (ii) Give two examples of fodder crops.

Question 3

(a) Economic importance of diseases.

Diseases restrict movement of animals/products.
It also reduces productivity of animals.
Again, it reduces weight of animals/emaciation.
Reduce market value of animals.
It increases cost of production.
It may cause total loss of animals through death/high mortality.
It reduces reproductive ability of farm animals.
It reduces the growth rate of farm animals.
It reduces patronage of products from sick or diseased animals.
It enables discovery of new medications for farm animals.
It also reduces income of farmers.

(b)Example of parasites
(i) Ectoparasites
Blow fly larvae


(ii) Endoparasites
Tape worm
Pin worm
Hook worm
Round worm
Liver fluke.

(c)Causes of low production of ruminants in West Africa
Unfavourable climatic conditions.
Low technical expertise on the part of farmers.
Scarcity of well trained veterinary personnel and other supporting staff.
Unimproved breeds/poor breeds of ruminants
Poor production systems e.g. extensive system
High incidence of pests.
Unstable government policies.
High incidence of diseases.
Poor extension services.
Inadequate grazing (i.e. improper feeding of farm animals).
High incidence of diseases.
Poor extension services.
Inadequate or improper medications regimes.
Inconsistent feed supply to then animals.
Poor quality feed given to the farm animals and its resultant poor nutrients farm animals.
Poor marketing systems which discourages high production.
Religious/tribal beliefs.
High rate of in-breeding among farm animals.
Poor record keeping on each farm animal.
High cost of feed that hampers food feeding of farm animals.
Land tenure problems which ultimately affects higher production.
Conservative attitude of farmers (i.e. unwillingness of most farmers to readily adopt new and improved breeds of farm animals.
Poor housing can invariably affect the productivity of farm animals.

(d) (i) Fodder crop: It is an arable crop planted for the main purpose of feeding


(ii) Examples of fodder crops
Root and tuber crops.
Cereal crops.
Leguminous crops.

4.(a) (i) Explain the term monogastric
(ii) Give two examples of monogastrics.
(b) Explain each of the following terms a used animal nutrition:
(i) concentrate (ii) additive
(c) State four ways in which roughages are important in the diet of farm animals
(d) List four materials which could be used in milking cows.
(e) Mention two animals that could be fed on each of the following forms of
prepare feed
(i) pellets;
(ii) mash

Question 4 (a) (i) Explanation – Monogastric animals
Mono gastrics are animals with a simple stomach/ simple digestive system / single stomach.

(ii) Examples of monogastric animals
Guinea fowls

(b) Explanation of terms Concentrates:
(i)These are animal feeds which are high in digestible nutrients but low in fibre
(ii) Additives: These are substances added in look out for it to feed, to supply nutrients or non-nutrients to farm animals

(c) Importance of roughages in diet of farm animals
Provides bulk in animal feed.
Enhances bowel movement. Prevents constipation by binding with feed.
Serves as substrate for microbes in the GIT of animals.
Minimizes teeth overgrowth in some animals e.g. glasscutters.

(d) Materials used in milking cows
Hand gloves.
Milking machine.
Milking pails/bucket. Rope.
Protective shoes.
Sterilizing equipment.
Animals fed on prepared feed
Cheese cloth.
Milking chute.
Drenching bottle.
Protective clothing.
Vacuum pump.

(e) Animals fed on prepared feed
(i) Pellets

guines fowl
Cattle Etc.

(ii) Mash
Guinea fowl

Question 5
(a) Explanation of terms

(i) Flushing: Flushing is the provision of sufficient and nutritious feed to dam, two to three weeks before mating to enhance multiple birth.
(ii) Dystocia: Refers to abnormal/difficulty to give birth in farm animals.
(iii) Parturition: The act of giving birth in livestock.
(b) Importance of fencing in livestock rearing

It enhances records keeping on farm animals.
It reduces the incidence of diseases.
It also reduces incidence of diseases.
It again minimizes encroachment.
It helps to control and handle animals/enhances proper management practices.
Fencing helps to prevents animals from soiling the environment.
Protects animals from consuming crops sprayed with chemicals.
It protects animals from theft.
It also helps to manage stock for breeding.
Helps to separate animals into groups.
It helps to divide grassland into paddocks.
It minimized loss of animal products such as eggs.
It helps to practice controlled grazing.
It helps to keeps predators and stray animals away.
It easily helps to identify ownership of farm animals.

(c) Importance of rearing rabbits
Its manure is rich in nitrogen/good source of manure
Highly prolific/produces many young ones at a time
Converts less quality feed to high quality products
Does not require huge capital to establish
Space requirement is minimal
serves as companion animal/pet
Used for research purposes
Serves as a good source of animal protein/white meat/tender and nutritious meat
Short gestation period
Attains mature weight in a short period
Source of pelt for handicrafts Source of income/foreign exchange
Source of employment
Revenue to government

(d) Disadvantages of deep litter system of rearing poultry
Requires large quantity of litter which adds to the production cost
High wastage of feed by birds
Prevalence of cannibalism
Breakage of eggs
Eggs collected are often dirty
Difficult to collect/10
Separate dropping High wastage of water
Eggs wastage of water Litter management is difficult/labour intensive
Difficult to identify unproductive birds for culling
High infestation of parasites
High spread of disease
Ammonia build-up is common

6.(a) State four aims of animal improvement programs.
(b) Mention four hormones involved in reproduction in farm animals.
(c) (i) Explain the term cross breeding
(ii) State two disadvantages of inbreeding.
(d) (i) Explain the term natural pasture.
(ii) State six problems that are associated with range lands in West Africa

Question 6
(a) Aims of animal improvement programs
To enhance feed conversion efficiency.
To increase yield of meat, egg and milk.
To improve the quality of animals, carcass, milk, egg, wool etc
To enhance growth rate.
To increase resistance to diseases.
To produce animals adapted to the needs of farmer e.g. reduced aggression.
To increase resistance to pests.
To promote adaptability to tropical/local conditions.
For reduced maturity period.
To increase litter size.

(b) Hormones involved in reproduction in farm animal
Follicle Stimulating Hormones (FSH).
Luteinizing hormone.

(c) (i)Cross breeding: This involves breeding animals which belong to different breeds of the same species e.g. N’dama crossed with Muturu.

(ii) Disadvantages of in-breeding

Transmission of chronic diseases
Leads to decline in fertility.
Undesirable genes (recessive) may become prominent.
Lowers the average merit of the population.
There may be a decline in traits such as egg production/ milk yield.
may lead to inbreeding depression.
Reduces livestock vigour.