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WASSCE Animal Husbandry 2019 – Paper 2

WASSCE Animal Husb. 2019 Sect. B


1.(a) Name three breeds of goats reared in Ghana.
(b) Explain each of the following practices as used in livestock management:
(i) disbudding in cattle; (ii) flushing in sows; (iii) steaming up in sheep.
(c) Give four
(i) advantages of free range system of rearing animals
(ii) disadvantages of the free range system of rearing animals.


Question 1.

1.(a) Name three breeds of goats reared in Ghana.
(b) Explain each of the following practices as used in livestock management:
(i) disbudding in cattle; (ii) flushing in sows; (iii) steaming up in sheep.
(c) Give four
(i) advantages of free range system of rearing animals
(ii) disadvantages of the free range system of rearing animals.

(a) Breeds of goat in Ghana
Saamen goat
West African dwarf
West African long legged/sahel/ sahellian goat/touareg
Sokoto red
Bornu white
Kano brown
Bornu red
Boer goat

(b) Explanation of Practices
(i) Disbudding in cattle
Disbudding is the removal of the horn producing bud of young calf using caustic soda stick / hot iron.

Reasons: it allows for easy handling of the animal / makes the animals gentle. or calm, controls horn cancer, reduces injury to other animals and personnel,creates space in the pen.

(ii) Flushing in sows
Flushing is the provision of sufficient and nutritious feed to dam, two to three weeks before mating.

Reasons: It is done to induce ovulation and increase multiple birth.
Exposed to harsh weather conditions
Indiscriminate mating
Description of farm crops
Public nuisance due to indiscriminate defeacation
Farmer is unable to observe signs of ill-health.

(iii) Steaming-up in sheep

This is the provision of additional concentrates of high nutritive value to pregnant-dam in the last two to three weeks proceeding lambing.

Reasons: it helps the dam build up enough energy for early lactation/boosts milk production, satisfies the nutritional requirement of the growing foetus, ensures delivery of healthy lambs, provides energy for parturition.

(c) (i) Advantages of free range system of rearing sheep
Farmer benefits from the services of neighbours’ male animals
Cost of housing the sheep is low
Animals get enough vitamin D from the sun
Low cost of feeding low cost of labour
Sheep rarely suffer nutritional deficiencies since they feed
Variety of herbage
Initial capital needed is low
The sheep are able to exercise their body for good health
Improves flavour of the meat
Waste accumulation is minimal
Disease spread is minimal

(ii) Disadvantages of free range system of rearing sheep
Animals may be mal-nourished at certain times of thee year
Sheep can be stolen/lost
Could be injured/ killed in accidents
Prone to contagious diseases
Could be attacked by predators
Prone to pest infestation
Slow growth rate of animals / low productivity
No record keeping / difficult to keep records.

2.(a) Explain each of the following terms as used in animal nutrition:
(i) roughage (ii) concentrate
(b) Give six reasons why protein is important in the diet of farm animals.
(c) (i) Define the term fodder crop.
(ii) Name two pasture legumes used to feed ruminants.
(d) State four causes of fed contamination in animal production.

Question 2.
(a) Explanation of terms
(i) Roughages These are animals feed are high in fibre (more than 10% crude fibre), have low digestibility, low in carbohydrate and protein contents
(ii) Concentrate This is animal feed which is low in crude fibre (less than 18%), high in protein and with high digestibility. It can be carbohydrate, protein or mineral source
(b) Importance of protein in animal diet
Needed for formation of gametes
For production of anti-bodies
For repair of worn-out-tissues
For production of enzymes
For production of hormones
For formation of exoskeleton such as hair, hooves
Forms a significant component of blood
Serves as a sources of energy under stressful conditions
Required for production of milk, eggs, muscles
Promotes growth
Help maintain fluid balance in the body.

(c) (i) Definition of “Fodder crops”
Fodder crops are arable crops/plants which are established for the purpose of feeding ruminants and are fed in the form of cut and carry, silage or hay.

(ii) Examples of pasture legumes Centrosema

(d)Causes of feed contamination
Inappropriate storage facility / high humidity or moisture
Feaces and urine fro pests
Pest attack
Using unwholesome ingredients/ adulterated ingredients
Use of contaminated equipment /tools/packaging materials
Serving feedi contaminated containers / troughs
Fungal infestation/mouldiness

3.(a) (i) Mention the four organs responsible for excretion in farm animals.
(ii) Mention one substance excreted by each of the organs mentioned in (a)(i).
(b) State four functions of
(i) blood;
(ii) skin
(c) State four activities that should be carried out to ensure high performance improved breeds of sheep.

Question 3.
(a) (i)Excretory organs


(ii)Substances excreted carbon-dioxide,

Lungs- carbon-dioxide,water
Liver-bile pigments, excess amino acids,toxins
Skin- Salt, water, urea Water, urea /urie
Kidney-Water,urea/urea acid,ammonia,salt

(b) Functions of body components

(i) Blood

Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
Distributes food nutrients
Regulates body temperature
Removes waste products from the body
Transports hormones
Protects body against diseases
Regulates pH in the body

(ii) Skin
For protection
For excretion of salts
Synthesizes vitamin D
For temperature regulation
For secretion of sebum
Acts as a sensory organ/sense of feel
Responsible for pigmentation / skin colour

(c)Activities to ensure high performance of improved breeds
Practice good sanitation
Provide balanced ration/ supplementary feed
Effectively control pests/parasites
Effectively prevent and control diseases
Provide suitable housing with appropriate temperature, ventilation, space etc
Provide fresh clean water regularly
Use recommended floor spacing
Use recommended male to female ratio
Practice controlled breeding

4.(a) Mention two sources of each of the following nutrients in poultry production:
(a) calcium (b) carbohydrate.
(b) State four ways in which egg breakage in poultry house could be reduced.
(c) Give four reasons why chicken production more popular in Ghana than duck production.
(d) The recommended stocking rate for ducks in semi-intensive run is 0.3 m² per duck. If a community has a grass run of 0.2 hectares, how many ducks wouldbe needed to fully stock the run?

Question 4.

(a) Sources of nutrients in poultry production

(i) Calcium
Fish meal
Oyster shell
Bone meal
Dicalcium phosphate
Snail shell
Lime stone
Egg shell

(ii) Carbohydrate
Maize / corn
Rice grains

cassava/peel meal
corn offal/corn chaff
wheat bran
dried brewers grain
rice bran

(b)Ways of reducing egg breakage in a poultry house
Remove broody hens from nesting area
Avoid agitating the birds
Avoid overcrowding in deep litter system Collect eggs regularly
Provide sufficient calcium in the feed/ balanced diet
Avoid careless handling of eggs
Prevent/control diseases. Supply adequate feed / water
Provide sufficient nests / nesting space
Prevent attack of rodents and vitamins Ensure gentle slope of cage
Debeak the birds
Use appropriate packaging material
Provide sufficient floor litter
Do not feed fresh egg shells to birds
Cull egg-eating birds

5.a) (i) Explain each of the following terms as used in animal production:
(a) pest;
(B) pathogen;
(Y) zoonotic disease.
(ii) Give one example of each of the terms in (a) (i)
(b) Discuss foot and mouth disease under the following headings:
(i) casual agent; (ii) two symptoms;
(iii) two control measures;
(iv) two animals that could be infected.
(c) Explain two factors that could increase parasite population on an animal farm.

Question 5.

(a) (i) (a) Pest
A Pest is any destructive insect, animal or plant that attacks crops, food, livestock and even human beings and has a harmful effect on them.

(B) Pathogen
A pathogen is a micro organism that causes diseases to farm animals or causes ill-health in animals.

(Y) Zoonotic disease
A disease which can be transmitted from animals to humans, and vice versa


Soldier ants,



Zoonotic disease

A vian influenza/Bird flu
Swine flu
Mad cow disease

(b) Foot and mouth disease is discussed below

(i) casual Agent
(ii) Symptoms
(iii) Control

Loss of weight (emaciation)
Regular vaccination

Drop in milk yield in cattle
Restrict movement of animals

Cull affected animals to control

Loss of appetite/difficulty in feeding
Quarantine animal for close
examination.before adding them to
the flock

High fever
Treat the blisters with.the ,
recommended chemical

Blister in the mouth, on the feet, and on the teat
Clean and disinfect affected area and equipment

Excessive salivation
Possible abortion in pregnant animals
Control rodents and other vectors

Infected carcasses and products should be disposed properly

(iv) Two animals that could be infected with foot and mouth disease

(c)Factors that could increase parasite population
Poor hygiene condition such as use of contaminated water and fed troughs, causing parasites to multiply to cause harm to farm animals.

.Supplying feed which is contaminated with worms. The worms multiply if conditions are favourable to cause damage to their hosts.

Continuous grazing on the same pasture for long time leads to high build up of ticks, worms, etc. the eggs of the parasite hatch with time and multiply to cause havoc to the host.

6. (a) State four ways in which each of the following factors affect animal production:
(i) low temperature; (ii) high relative humidity.
(b) State four ways by which animals grazing in a hot weather maintain a constant body temperature.
(c) State five effects of delayed removal of r on poultry production.
(d) State three ways of controlling cannibalism in poultry.

Question 6.
(a) Effects of factors on animal production
(i) Low temperature
Huddling of birds could result in suffocation
Increases feed intake and hence cost of production
Reduces feed efficiency as more nutrients / energy is needed for body maintenance
It leads to low water intake which affects the quality and quantity of products such egg milk Extremely low temperatures retard growth due to decrease water intake
Vices such as cannibalism are more pronounced under low temperature conditions. Extremely low temperatures could lead to chilling and death / cold stress

(ii) High relative humidity
Favours growth of pathogens
Leads to mouldiness as a fungal activities are high
Leads to stressful conditions Leads to reduction in feed and water intake
Cause wet litter leading to ammonia build up and its consequent problems
Enhances pasture growth
Enhances growth of pests/parasites

(b) Ways by which grazing animals constant body temperature
Staying under shade
Reduced activity/grazing
Frequent urination
Drinking more water

(c) Effects of delayed removal of litter on poultry production
Contamination of feed and water
Predisposes birds to diseases
Eggs become dirty
There is build up of ammonia / respiratory problems
Increased infestation of insect pest
When it cakes, it becomes difficult to remove
It can be hide-out for predators
There is reduction in egg laying
Increased mortality
Reduction in feed intake
Irritation of the eyes or blindness of birds
Produces bad odour / smell

(d) Ways of controlling cannibalism in poultry
Introduction of forage to distract the birds
Provision of balanced diet especially addition of calcium and phosphorus
Provide adequate feed
Debeaking of birds
Proper ventilation
Avoid keeping birds of different ages in the same pen
Provision of adequate feed and water troughs
Cull or isolate wounded birds
Avoiding oververcrowding of birds.
High temperature with high humid conditions favour cannibalism in poultry, etc.