You dont have javascript enabled! Please enable it!

WASSCE Animal Husbandry 2018 – Paper 2

WASSCE Animal Husb. 2018 Sect. B


1. (a) Define the term coprophagy.
(b) Mention five forage crops that could be fed to grasscutter in captivity.
(c) Mention four management practices which are carried out in grasscutter production.
(d) State four features of a good housing unit for rearing snails.
(e) List five activities that dogs could carry out for the benefit of humans.

Question 1
(a) Definition of Coprophagy

Coprophagy is an act in which an animal feeds on its own soft faeces e.g. rabit.

(b) Forage crops used to feed grasscutter. Guinea grass
Elephant grass
Gamba grass.
Giant star-grass
Wild sorghum / sorghum
Maize plant
Sheep grass

(c)Management practices carried out in grasscutter production.
Provision of clean water.
Records keeping.
Disease control / medication.
Pest/parasite control.

(d) Features of a good housing unit for snails.
Should be spacious.
Should be escape proof.
Easy to work in e.g. cleaning, provision of feed.
Well protected from predators and poachers.
Mosquito nets / nylon mesh to cover pens and protect snails from insects.
Drainage holes in box.
The housing unit should provide shade.
Have separate pens for nursery, growers, breeder.
Should have growing plants to provide shelter and food in the pens.
Should be well ventilated..

(e) Beneficial activities of dogs to humans.

Shepherding sheep/herding sheep.
Hunting game.
Guarding children / protecting children. Rescue operations.
Carrying messages.
Watching a place against robbers (infiltrators) / provide security.
Detecting hard drugs.
Guiding physically challenged persons.

2. (a) (i) Define the term silage.
(ii) Mention two characteristics of a good silage.
(b) Sate four functions of fats and oils in farm animals.
(c) State two reasons why cereal grains form a major part of the diet of poultry.
(d) Explain five factors which should be considered when formulating feed for farm animals.

Question 2
(a) (i) Definition of Silage.
Silage is forage that is cut and preserved in the moist form under anaerobic conditions OR Silage is fodder conserved in succulent state by partial fermentation under anaerobic conditions.
NB: Without anaerobic conditions – Zero

(ii) Characteristics of good silage
Free form dust.
Free from mould Green/yellowish green.
Pleasant, slightly vinegar smell, fruity odour.
Leafy/high leaf to stem ratio.
Palatable/pleasant taste/ acceptable to animal.
It must have high nutritive value.
It must have high digestibility.

(b) Functions of fats and oils in poultry diet.
Provide energy for body activities/heat.
Maintenance of body temperature / they insulate the body of animals/ thermoregulation.
Provision of fat soluble vitamins / absorption of fat soluble vitamins and calcium
Supply of essential fatty acids for fat synthesis.
It forms parts of cell membranes.
They are enzyme activator (they convert inactive form of an enzyme to an active form).
It improves palatability
It reduces dustiness of feeds
Marbling of meat.

(c)Reasons why cereal grains form-major part of poultry diet.
Cereals contains high concentration of energy.
Are highly digestible.
Birds are simple-stomach animals and can digest cereals.
Main source of material for fattening birds.

(d) Factors to be considered when formulating feed for farm animals
Physiological state of the animal Feeds are formulated to meet the nutrient requirement of pregnant, lactating and laying animals.

Types of feedstuff available: Use feedstuffs which are readily available and can serve as alternative to other feedstuffs In order to minimize cost of production.

Cost of feed ingredients: Different feed ingredients may contain some nutrients. However, they may have different prices. It is necessary to consider the cost so that feed ingredients of low prices may be bought to allow production of feed at very low cost/price.

Age of the animals: Formulate feed that can provide nutrient requirement of different ages of animals. Generally younger animals require more protein than older ones

Palatability of the feed: Formulate feed with feedstuffs which are acceptable to the animals on order to avoid wastage

Quality of feed ingredients: Use feedstuffs which are clean and devoid of pathogens as well as having a high nutrient content in order to enhance growth and prevent diseases

Nutrient composition of ingredient: Use fees stuffs which contain high amount of nutrient

Breed of animal: Use feed stuff that can provide high energy and protein based on

the requirement of the breed. In poultry, layers require more calcium than non-layers Type/Purpose: Formulate feed to meet the nutrient requirement of the animal based on its function e.g. bullock cattle, dual purpose poultry etc

Health condition: The nutrient requirement varies with the health condition of farm animals. Sick animals tend to eat less; therefore the nutrient level of their diet should be higher

Presence of undesirable nutritional factors: Use ingredients without toxins to formulate feed for animals. Ingredients with toxins should be processed to enable the animal utilize the nutrient and avoid diseases. E.g. aflatoxin in groundnut. Toxic ingredients affected both palatability and smell of feed if added in excess amounts.

3 (a) Define each of the following terms as used in poultry production:
(i) Hatching;
(ii) Incubation;
(iii) Brooding;

(b) Mention five factors that could lead to the laying of low number of fertile eggs in a poultry house.
(c) List five precautions that should be taken to ensure uniform hatching of fertile eggs in an incubator. (d) Mention four activities that are carried out in a hatchery after hatching of eggs.

Question 3

(a) Definition of terms

(i) Hatching is the emergence of chicks / young birds from fertile egg at the end of the incubation period.

(NB: Without end of the incubation period=0 mark)

(ii) Incubation

It is the process whereby fertile eggs are provided with necessary conditions to ensure the development of the embryo to a chick / young birds.

(iii) Brooding

This is the management of chicks from day old till they develop enough feathers to keep them warm (4 – 6weeks)

(NB: Without enough feathers or 4-6 weeks = 0 mark)

(b) Factors that could lead to the laying of law number of fertile eggs.

Wrong mating ratio.
Old age of breeders / Very young of breeders (NB: age alone = 0).
Inadequate water.
Inadequate feed.
Physiological condition of the animal e.g. moulting.
Poor nutrition of breeders / poor quantity fee/poor nutrient content.
Poor quality of breeders/poor breed
Pest infestation.
Poor housing/poor ventilation /high temperature.
Stressful condition e.g. deworming/vaccination, debeaking, overcrowding, excessive noise / disturbance. Infrequent mating.
Disease condition.
Irregular feeding time.
Inadequate water Drastic change of feed.
(NB: Poor feeding = 0)

(c) Precautions taken to ensure uniform hatching of eggs
Ensuring regular turning of eggs.
Selecting eggs of the same size and without cracks.
Proper setting of eggs uniformly in the try.
Timely and regular collection of eggs.
Holding period of eggs before setting should not exceed 14 days.
Setting of clean eggs.
Ensuring suitable environmental conditions of temperature, relative humility and ventilation.
Ensure constant supply of electricity / power.
Ensure that incubators are working efficiently.

(d) Activities carried out in a hatchery after hatching.
Sexing of chicks/young birds.
Drying of chicks / ensure that the chicks dry of vaccination.
Sorting out abnormal chicks.
Packing and disinfection of the hatchery and equipment.
Proper disposal of hatchery waste. Record keeping.

4. (a) (i) Explain the term rangeland as used in animal husbandry.
(ii) Explain four management practices that could be carried out to improve rangeland.
(b) Discuss the Newcastle disease under the following headings:
(i) Two animals affected;
(ii) Causative agent;
(iii) Two modes of transmission
(iv) Three symptoms;
(v) Two control measures

Question 4

(a) (i) Definition of Rangeland.

It is an extensive area of land which contains forage grasses and or legumes and other herbage plants growing naturally where animals are grazed. (NB: Without growing naturally=0)

(ii) Management practices for improving rangeland.
Controlled burning:- Creation of firebelt during burning of pastures. Done to encourage the growth of fresh leaves for livestock
Fencing/paddocking:- The rangeland is divided into paddocks to encourage
rotational grazing.
Irrigation: Application of water to enable plants to grow especially during the dry season.
Weed control:- Removal of unwanted plants so that grass and legumes can grow well.
Pest control:- Getting rid of pests which might destroy the pasture by use of pesticides Reseeding: Sowing of seeds of grasses and legumes to replace depleted range land. Manuring/fertilizer application: Applying manure or fertilizer to keep soil fertile and provide nutrients to plants. Provision of water points.
Creation of ponds, water storage tanks to make water available for drinking.

(b) New castle disease

(i) Animals affected-Fowls, Turkey, Guinea fowls, Ducks, Quail, Geese, Ostrich
(ii) Casual agent-Virus.

(iii) Modes of transmission:
Through contaminated feed.
Through contaminated water.
Through direct contact with infected animals..
Through contact with contaminated materials.
Air borne.

(iv) Symptoms
Loss of weight.
Difficulty in breathing.
Birds huddle together.
Droopy wings.
Green foul smelling watery faeces / diarrhoea.
Coughing and sneezing.
Neck twisting (torticolis) leading to star gazing.
Malformed soft shelled eggs.
Loss of appetite.
Rapid decline egg production.

(v) Control

Use foot bath.
Routine vaccination.

Good sanitation/ burn / bury dead animals/avoid contaminated equipment from infected farms.
Isolating diseased animals.

5. (a State six causes of mortality in goat production. 6) Explain how each of the following factors affect the distribution of farm, animals in West Africa:
(i) Temperature;
(ii) Food availability;
(iii) Disease incidence;
(iv) Culture and religion.
(c) Define the term ectoparasite as used in animal husbandry. (d) Give four objectives of rearing farm animals.

Question 5
(a) Causes of mortality in goat production
Inadequate / lack of water / dehydration.
Extreme temperature/Inclement weather / Heat stress.
Poisons / Contaminated feed and water.
Starvation/malnutrition / nutritional problems.
Improper medication (irregular / overdose).
Prolonged labour e.g. breech dystocia.

(b) How the following factors affect the distribution of farm animals.

(i) Temperature.
Temperature influences rainfall and the growth of plants as well as the
distribution of animals. The high temperature in the savanna favours the
production of cereals and grasses and therefore enhances ruminant
Also certain farm animals can survive only in certain temperature and ecological zones.

(ii) Food availability.
Savanna/ grass lands provide pasture for rearing ruminants and therefore more ruminants are reared in the savanna areas than in the forest areas.

(iii) Diseases.
Disease prevalence is high in the forest / humid areas than in the savanna and therefore only animals that are tolerant to these diseases could be found in these areas.

(iv) Culture and Religion.
Culture and religion of certain groups favour the rearing of certain animals e.g. rearing of pigs in muslim populated areas is not favoured as compared to sheep and goats.

(c) Definition of ectoparasites.
They are organisms that live on the body of another organism (host) and rely on the host for food and protection and cause injury to the host. (NB: Without injury=0)

(d) Objectives of rearing farm animals
To provide employment.
To provide food/meat / milk/egg.
To provide income.
To provide farm yard manure to use in crop production.
To provide raw materials for industries.
To earn foreign exchange (NB: Without “to” proceeding the statement = 0)
To supply source of farm power.
For prestige /social status/ to enhance one’s prestige.
For socio-cultural reasons e.g. dowry, religious sacrifices.
For research purposes / to provide opportunities for research.

6(a) Discuss artificial insemination under the following headings:
(i) Two semen collection methods;
(ii) Two functions of semen diluents;
(iii) Two methods of semen storage

(b) Name five agents in the marketing of animal products.
(c) (i) Explain the term oestrus as used in animal husbandry.
(ii) State six signs of oestrus in sheep.

Question 6
Discussion of Artificial insemination.
(i) Semen collection.
The bull is made to amount a dummy female/teaser for ejaculation.
Use of electro ejaculator / use of.electrical stimulating method
The penis is diverted into artificial vagina for ejaculation
Hand massaging of penis.

(ii) Function of Diluents.
Diluents nourish the spermatozoa.
Increase the volume of semen.
Prevent growth of micro organism.
Preserve spermatozoa.

(iii) Methods of semien storage
Freeze semen in dry ice and alcohol.
Freeze semen in liquid nitrogen.
Refrigerate/chill semen at the appropriate temperature.

(b) Agents involved in marketing animals products.
Co-operative societies.
Marketing boards.
Commission agents.

(c) (i) Explanation of Oestrus.
The period when female farm animal is willing to mate with the male. During this period matured eggs are released and fertilization is most likely to occur if the animals is serviced. It varies from one animal to another. This development in the female animal is controlled by the hormone oestrogen.

(ii) Signs of Oestrus in sheep.
Reddened and swollen
Tendency to mount and be mounted by other animals.
Slimy and whitish discharge from vulva.
Abnormal high temperature.
Undue noise making/ frequent bleating.
Loss of appetite.
Sniffing of other females.
Temporary drop in milk production of lactating animals.
Frequent urination.