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WASSCE Animal Husbandry 2016 – Paper 2

WASSCE Animal Husb. 2016 Sect. B


1. (a) List four grasses that are suitable for the establishment of pasture in Ghana.
(b) State four ways in which forage crops are important in animal Production.
(c) Mention four factors to consider in establishing a snail farm in west Africa.
(d) Describe two types of mating in sheep.


Question 1
(a) Suitable grasses for pasture establishment Elephant grass/ Pennisetum purpureum Gamba grass/ Andropogon gayanus
Giant start grass / Cynodon plectostachyus
Rhode grass/Chloris gayana
Guinea grass/Panicum maximm
African foxtail/ Buffel grass/ Cenchrus ciliaris
Bermuda grass / Bahama grass/Cybodon dactylon
Pangola grass / Digitaria decumbens
Bahia grass / Paspalum notatum
Hyparrhenia/ Hyparrhenia rafa Etc.
(b) Importance forage crops in animal production
Source of readily available feed for ruminants.
Enables animals to exercise themselves when grazing.
Legumes enrich the soil and improve soil fertility.
Naturally occurring forage reduces the cost of feeding animals.
Provides the nutritional needs of animals because of the mixture of grasses and legumes. Provides ground cover which helps in controlling soil erosion.
Could be cut fresh and processed into hay and silage for feeding animals in the dry season. Used as roofing materials for pens Used as bedding material animals.
(c) Factors to be considered in establishing a snail farm
Species of snail
The system of snail available
Feed availability Shade/shelter availability
Type of housing to be used
Building materials available
Availability of water
Management skills available.
Cost of building material
Availability of market
Suitable environment e.g. soil characteristics, wind speed, temperature
Socio-cultural beliefs
Availability of capital
Availability of land
Security of snails

(d) Types of mating in sheep
Hand mating (stud mating): The handler detects a ewe on heat and it is led to the ram for mating. Thereafter the ewe is taken back to its pen.

Pasture mating / flock mating: It is an uncontrolled mating system in which the rams and ewes are allowed to run together on the same pasture. The ram detects the ewe on heat and runs after it for mating.

Pen mating: It is a mating system in which a group of ewes are brought to the ram’s pen for mating.

2. (a) (i) What is a zoonotic disease?
(ii) Give four examples of zoonotic disease.
(b) Mention five modes of transmission of diseases in farm animal.
(c) State five ways in which worms affect farm animal.
(d) Enumerate five factors that should be considered in setting up a commercial livestock farm.

Question 2
(a) (i) Definition of zoonotic disease A zoonotic disease is the type of disease which could be transferred from animal to man and vice versa.
(ii) Examples of zoonotic diseases
Avian influenza/Bird flu / Avian flu
Swine flu
Mad cow

(b) Modes of transmission of disease on an animal farm
Direct contact with diseased animals
Through cuts / wounds/ sore
Contact with contaminated inanimate objects such as equipment and tools
Infection from soil / soil borne organisms
Infection from contaminated food
Infection from contaminated water
Air-borne infections Infection from vectors

(c) Ways in which worms affect farm animals
Withdraw nutrients from farm animals leading to loss in weight etc.
They cause damage to essential organs.
They could block blood vessels of the animals causing death.
Worms suck blood from host animals making them anaemic.
Worms produce toxins in the host blood.
They block the intestines and bile duct causing digestive disturbances.
Loss of appetite / reduced growth rate.
Loss of production
Loss of condition / unthriftness

(d) Factors considered in setting up commercial livestock farm
Source of water
Availability of feed/ pasture
Accessibility to market
Availability of good breeding stock/ Feed conversion ratio
Labour Managerial expertise / skilled personnel
Socio-cultural beliefs
Availability of land

3. (a) State four precautions that should be taken to ensure the production of good quality hay.
(b) Explain each of the following terms as used in livestock production
(i) zero grazing
(ii) flushing
(iii) stocking density
(iv) parturition

Question 3 (a) Precautions to be taken to ensure the production of high quality hay

Harvesting of forage should be done at the end of the raining season that there is enough sunshine for drying /favourable weather to ensure.

Grass should be turned regularly to ensure uniform drying.

Harvested grass should be covered when not being dried to prevent entry of rain water. Grass should be harvested at young age to ensure high nutrient content.
Keep the cut forage off the ground to improve air circulation / place on platform.
(b) Explanation of terms
(i) Zero grazing: It is a method of feeding ruminants where the herbage is cut and carried to the confined animal.
(ii) Flushing: It is the practice of giving female animals a higher plane of nutrition prior to mating. This stimulates the shedding of more eggs and could increase the number of offspring born in each litter.
(iii) Stocking density: It refers to the number of animals that are kept in a particular enclosure/area. A high stocking density means that large number of animals are kept in a specific enclosure and vice versa.
(iv) Parturition: It is the act of giving birth in farm animals when the developing foetus must have reached full term in the uterus, and ready to be born.

4(a) (i) Define the term respiration in farm animals
(ii) Give three reasons why respiration is important in farm animals
(b) State three ways in which each of the following activities is important in commercial sheep production;
(i) weighing:
(ii) castration;
(iii) dipping
(iv) tagging

Question 4 (a)(i) Definition of respiration : It is the process whereby food nutrients are oxidised ion the body to release energy, water and carbon dioxide.

(ii) Importance of respiration to farm animals
Leads to the production of energy which is used for work, growth, etc.
It supplies oxygen to the body cells.
It removes carbon dioxide from the body.
It helps in thermoregulation.
It provides metabolic water which is used by the body

(b)Importance of activities in commercial sheep production
(i) Weighing
It helps to monitor rate of growth.
It helps to assess performance of feed.
It determines market value of animals.
Loss of weight could indicate illness.
To help management to take decision such as selection and culling.

(ii) Castration
It controls indiscriminate mating.
It increases docility.
It increases fat deposition / fattens animals.
It improves meat quality.
It eliminates offensive odour from male goats.

(iii) Dipping
It controls ectoparasites.
It prevents diseases associated with parasites.
It improves cleanliness of body/skin/ hair.
It removes discomfort associated with parasites.
It reduces skin damage by ectoparasites.

(iv) Tagging
It is a means of identification / establish ownership.
It helps in selection for breeding / culling.
It reduces theft/losses.
It aids record keeping.

5(a) (i) Name two components of the autonomic nervous system.
(ii) Name two parts of the central nervous system.
(iii) State two functions of each of the parts named in (ii).
(b) Mension two ways in which farm animals obtain water.
(c) Give five reasons why a farmer would rear goats instead of cattle.

Question 5
(a) (i) Components of the autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system
(ii)Parts of the central nervous system
Spinal cord
(iii) Functions of parts of the central nervous system
Receives impulses from the sensory organs and initiates appropriate responses
Coordinates the different activities of the body
Stores information so that behaviour can be modified by past experience
Controls involuntary actions etc

Spinal cord:
Transmits impulses to and from the brain.
Controls all reflex actions.
Main structure from which other nerves are connected to their target organs.

(b) Ways in which farm animals obtain water
Water in feed.
Drinking water.
Metabolic water.
Dew on leaves /fodder.

(c) Reasons for rearing goats instead of cattle
Their low purchase prices so low capital requirement is needed establish
a goat farm.
Goats reproduce at an early age than cattle so sales of offspring can start early.
They have more young ones than cattle so they are more likely to be available for sale or to increase population.
Due to small size, goats are easier to handle in terms of housing, transportation etc.
Goats can browse on a variety of forage plants hence the cost of production can be low. Goat requirements for land spaces for grazing purposes is lower than that of cattle.
Goats are cheaper to replace terms of mortality and in the value of loss.
Goats can be reared easily all over the country because they are hardier and more resistance to most diseases than cattle.
Goats have higher scavenging ability than cattle so they can fend for themselves on free range.
Goats have shorter gestation period than cattle.

6(a) Name five tools that could be found in a well managed cattle farm.
(b) State five ways of ensuring good sanitation in a poultry house.
(c) Mention four signs of oestus in a cow.
(d) Explain three conditions necessary for the successful hatching of poultry eggs

Question 6
(a) Tools required in a cattle farm.
Hoof trimmer
Spade /Shovel
Branding tool
Tag applicator
Restraining ropes
Hacksaw / saw

(b) Ways of ensuring good sanitation in a poultry house
Periodic removal of old litter.
Regular removal of wet litter
Carry out required vaccination on time.
Leakages of wateres should be repaired.
Attendants should wear clean clothes.
Use footpath before entering room.
Proper disposal of dead birds and wastes.
Provide good ventilation.
Unauthorized persons should not be allowed into premises.
Wash and disinfect equipment.
Scrub and disinfect poultry house/ Sweeping of poultry houses.

(c) Signs of oestrus in a cow
Mucous discharge from the vulva.
Mounting on other animals and being mounted.
The vulva swells and reddens.
Reduced appetite.
Undue noise.
Abnormal high body temperature.
Frequent urination.

(d) Conditions necessary for the successful hatching of poultry eggs
Temperature: The temperature should usually be between 37°C-39°C. An optimum/ suitable temperature is required for development of the embryo.
Relative humidity: Relative humidity of 50-60% during the first 19 days and 75% during the last 2-3 days required to prevent dehydration of chicks in the hatcher. The right relative humidity prevents dehydration of the embryo.
Ventilation: Free movement of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapour through the shell is very essential for developing embryo.
Egg positioning: Eggs are usually placed in the incubator with the large end facing up to facilitate the exchange of gases.
Egg turning: The eggs are turned regularly in order to expose all sides to the required conditions and prevent the embryo from sticking to the shell