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WASSCE Animal Husbandry 2014 – Paper 2

WASSCE Animal Husb. 2014 Sect. B


Question 1.

(a) List five qualities of a good pasture plant
(b) Mention six disadvantages of natural incubation of eggs.
(c) State three ways in which each of the following management practices is important in animal production:
(i) Castration (ii) Dehorning (iii) Identification

(a)Qualities of a good pasture plant
(i) Resistant to disease.
(ii) Easy to establish.
(iii) High growth rate.
(iv) Ability to withstand drought.
(v) Palatable.
(vi) High leaf to stem ratio ability to withstand trampling.
(vii) Nutritious.
(viii) High digestibility.
(ix) Ability to recover after grazing/ burning

(b) Disadvantages of natural incubation of eggs

• Egg may be exposed to predators.
• Exposure to unfavorable weather/climatic conditions.
• Comparatively low hatchability.
• No candling so non fertilized eggs may be included./ waste time sitting of unfertilized.
• Chicks may be infested by diseases. Chicks may be infested by pests.
• Eggs may be stolen.
• Hen may, abandon the egg.
• Egg may be broken by hens.
• Not suitable for commercial chick production / number of eggs to hatch

(c)Importance of management practices
(i) Castration
• Animal becomes docile.
• Prevent spread of veneral diseases.
• Eliminate indiscriminate mating.
• Improves the flavor of meat e.g. Goat.
• Meat of castrated animals is tender.
• Prevents inbreeding. Improves the texture of meat.
• Eliminates odour of male goat

(ii) Dehorning

• Prevents animals from; hurting each other
• Makes handling of animals easier
• Gives animals more room/space
• Less space is required when transportation animals,
• Animals are less likely to be entangled in the bush/fence.
• Prevents damage to form structure/ equipment

(iii) Identification
• Easy recognition of animals/ minimizes conflict over ownership
• Facilitates record keeping
• Reduces theft of livestock
• Makes medication easier
• To select proven animals for breeding

Question 2.

(a) List four parts of the respiratory system of farm animals
(b) Mention six management practices that are carried out in goat production
(c) Enumerate four factors that should be considered in establishing a snail farm
(d) Explain three problems associated with grasscutter production in West Africa.



(a) Parts of the respiratory system of farm animals

• Nostrils
• Larynx
• Bronchi
• Alveoli
• Pharynx
• Tracheal
• Bronchioles
• Lungs

(b) Management practices carried out in goat production

• Maintain good environmental sanitation e.g. cleaning of pens, clearing of weeds etc.
• Proper medication Proper record keeping
• Quarantine newly purchased animals
• Provide clean water and mineral salts lick
• Give adequate and balanced ration/ salt
• Provide good quality pasture /
• Provide proper housing
• Culling
• Castration
• Isolate sick goats
• Provide proper breeding programme etc.

(c) Factors considered in establishing a snail farm

• Unavailability of good breeding stock.
• Inadequate technical know- how.
• Inadequate capital of farmers.
• Inadequate/poor storage facilities.
• Theft of animals.
• Difficulty in breeding in captivity.
• Tendency to escape is high.
• High cost of breeding stock.
• High cost of cage.
• Difficulty in settee feed during the dry season.

Question 3.

(a) Name three pathogens of farm animals
(b) Mention five vocations in animal husbandry
(c) State three main characteristic of each of the following types of cattle:
(i) Beef cattle (ii) Dairy cattle

(d) Discuss three factors that affect the production of good quality silage


(a) Pathogens of farm animals
• Viruses
• Bacteria
• Fungi
• Protozoa
• Rickettsia

(b) Vocations in animal husbandry
• Teaching
• Feed milling
• Butcher abattoir management
• Animal health care / veterinary care
• Non-ruminant
• Organic manure production
• Marketing of produce /products
• Wildlife conservation
• Breeding
• Dairy production
• Researching
• Ruminant production
• Hatchery operation
• Processing of produce
• Non-traditional animal production
• Pasture farming

(c) Characteristics of types of cattle.
(i) Beef cattle
• Muscular
• Blocky/ rectangular body conformation
• High growth rate
• Stocky with strong straight legs
• Small udder
• Converts feed into meat / flesh

(ii) Dairy cattle
• Wedged shaped/triangular in shape
• Low growth rate
• Large and well-developed udder
• Pronounced milk veins
• Docile
• Slender body not very muscular long legs
• High milk production

(d) Factors that affect the production of good quality silage type of plant material used
• Stage of harvest of plant material used/ level of maturity.
• Conditions under which silage was prepared e.g. chopping, wilting.
• Skill of farmers in silage preparation,
• Storage conditions e.g. Temperature.
• Chemical composition of the crop.
• Complete exclusion of air during the filling of the silo.
• Use of additives.

Question 4.
(a) Name one hormone responsible for each of the following reproductive activities
in farm animals:
(i) Ovulation
(ii) Parturition
(iii) Lactation

(b) State six conditions that may pre-dispose poultry to cannibalism
(c) Enumerate five measures that could be adopted to control ectoparasites of farm animals.
(d) Give three reasons why grazing animal drink more water during hot weather condition.

(a)Hormones responsible for reproductive activities
• Oestrogen
• Follicle stimulating hormone
• Luteinizing hormone
• Prostaglandin
(ii) Parturition
• Relaxin
• Oxytocin

(iii) Lactation
• Oxytocin
• Prolactin
• Oestrogen

(b) Conditions that predispose birds to cannibalism
• Heat stress
• Overcrowding
• Malnutrition hunger
• Presence of wounds the body pest infestation /poor ventilation high light Intensity
• Boredom
• Mixing, of different age group of birds
• Irregular feeding of birds
• Presence of moulds in the feed
• Damp floor. Etc.

(c) Measures of controlling ectoparasites
• Practice ‘rotational grazing
• Controlled burning quarantine
• Dipping of animal in appropriate chemical –
• Apply pasture to reduce hatchability of eggs of parasites
• Pour-on
• Use of injectables
• Dusting with appropriate chemical
• Spraying with appropriate chemicals.

(d) Reasons why grazing animals drink more water during hot weather conditions.
• High water loss from animals/dehydration
• Low moisture content of fodder”
• Low relative humidity.
• Increased thirst reduction of heat stress

Question 5.

(a) List six disadvantages of the free range system of rearing sheep
(b) State six characteristics of pig that makes it suitable for commercial production.
(c)Discuss four effects of climate on animal production.


(a) Disadvantages of the free range system of rearing sheep
• Uncontrolled mating/indiscriminate mating.
• Theft of animals.
• Animals get injured.
• Animals are poorly fed.
• Low growth rate
• High incidence of diseases
• High incidence of pests.
• Difficult to keep proper records.
• Litigation over ownership of animals.
• Destruction of properties.
• Animals may be knocked down by a car.
(b) Characteristics of pig that makes it suitable for commercial, production
• Very prolific/producing a large litter size.
• Has a short gestation period.
• Has a fast growth rate.
• Matures very early.
• Good converter of feed to meat.
• Has a high dressing percentage.
• Can be bred at any time of the year.
• It is a good source of protein.
• Reaches sexual maturity early.
• Can be feed on a lot of feedstuffs

(c) Effects of climate on animal production
• Very high temperature causes abortion in form animals.
• Very high temperature leads to low rate of fertilization.
• Very high temperature reduces frequency of mating, quality and quantity of
semen in animal very high temperatures reduces ovulation in animals.
• Very high- humidity enhances multiplication of pathogens.
• High temperature may lead to increase in water intake and reduction in feed
intake hence affecting growth rate.
• Low rainfall leads to drought and this affects plant and animals adversely.
• High rainfall encourages growth of plants as feed for animals and also provide
water for animals to drink hence leading to high growth rate.

Question 6.
(a) (i) Name three blood cells in farm animals.
(ii) State one function of each of the blood cells you have name in
(b) State five ways of preventing and controlling bloat on the farm
(c) Give four reasons for feeding ruminates with fresh forage crops cut at the right stage of maturity.



Name of blood cell Functions of blood cell
Red blood cells I erythrocytes
Responsible for transport oxygen to body tissue
Responsible for transporting carbon dioxide form the
White blood cells I leucocytes Attacks and destroys foreign. organisms in the body
Blood platelets/ thrombocytes Responsible for blood clotting

(b) Ways to prevent and control bloat on the farm (repeat from May/June 2001)
• Do not feed animals on lush pasture.
• Feed an animal on hay before turning them on pasture.
• Maintain grass dominance in the sward.
• Use strip grazing to restrict the movement of animals.
• Give animals’ vegetable oil.
• Use trochar and cannular to expel gas from rumen.
• Give bloat guard/ salt molasses block.
• Use penicillin based antibiotic.
• Plant grass/ legume mixture with legumes not more than 50% of the forage.
• Avoid feeding morning and late evening on the pasture.
• Feed in the afternoon if pasture has a high percentage of bloat plants.

(c) Reasons for feeding ruminants with fresh forage crops at the right stage of maturity
• High palatability
• Highly nutritious
• Highly digestible
• Less wastage of feed I material.
• High dry matter content. Etc.