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WASSCE Animal Husbandry 2013 – Paper 2

WASSCE Animal Husb. 2013 Sect. B



Question 1.
(a) Mention five management practices that are carried out on piglets

(b) State five characterisers of a suitable housing facility for the intensive production of sheep.

(c)Describe five symptoms of protein deficiency in farm animals.



(a)Management practices carried out on piglets
• Ensure that piglets have access to colostrum.
•Foster excess / orphan piglets on sows.
•Wipe off much from the nose of new born.
•Cut navel and treat with tincture of iodine,
•Provide creep feed.
• Cut off needle teeth.
•Give iron dextran injection /roasted lateritic soil.
• Provide source of heat.
•Castrate piglets.
• Tattoo piglets.
•Vaccinate piglet.
•Drench /deworm piglets.
•Provide fresh, clean water.

(b)Characteristics of a suitable housing facility for the intensive production of sheep
•Enough space of movement.
•Dry sleeping area.
• Strong floor /concrete floor.
•Well ventilated.
•Conducive temperature
•Free from pathogens.
•Separate rooms for different stages of growth.
• Fly-proof.
• Proper orientation of house.
•Properly roofed with suitable materials.

(c)Symptoms of protein deficiency in farm animals
•Stunted growth e.g. animals do not reach the expected weight and height at a specific period /time (maturity).
•Reduced milk production — expected quantity of milk reduces at milking.
• Pregnancy failure — prolonged pregnancy interval, defective oestrous cycle, frequent abortion.
•Reduced egg production — few eggs and reduced egg size.
•Less resistance to diseases —animals succumb to disease infection.
•Reduced sexual efficacy — reduce libido in males.
• Inability to synthesize hormones — symptoms of hormonal deficiencies occur
e.g. poor milk let —down.
• Emaciation —animal loses weight, grows lean, loss of condition.
•Poor exoskeleton formation —poor hair growth, hoof deformities, poor quality
of skin.
• Cannibalism — nutrient deficiency in diet causes animals to peck at each other.
• Anaemia —animal becomes pale and weak.
•Anorexia — animals does not show interest in feeding.

Question 2.
(a) Name five breed of rabbit found in Ghana

(b) State three advantages and three disadvantage of selection as a method of animals improvement.

(c) Explain each of the following terms as used in animal nutrition
(i) Diet
(ii) Feedstuff
(iii) Feed conversion efficiency



i(a) Breeds or rabbit found in Ghana
• Flemish giant
•Californian white
•New Zealand white
•Blue Zealand red
• Blue Beveren
•Champagne’ d’ Argent

(b) Advantages and disadvantages of selection as a method of animal improvement
• Animals with desirable characteristics are perpetuated.
• It ensures-that only the best naturally available animals are selected.
•Animals from best breeds are bred for distribution.
•Animals with undesirable characteristics are eliminated.
• It reduces the spread of diseases.

• It is tedious and time consuming.
•It requires expertise which may not be readily available.
•No new desirable characteristics are introduced into the herd/flock.
•Brings about elimination / exclusion of some desirable traits of parents stock etc.

( c) Explanation of terms used in animal nutrition
(i)Diet: Combination of feedstuffs containing the necessary nutrients given to animals to meet their nutritional needs or requirements.
(ii)Feedstuff: ‘Materials containing required nutrients which are used to prepare feed for animals.
(iii)Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE): It’s a unit of feed consumed in kg that is used to produce a unit weight (kg) of product e.g. body weight, meat OR FCE = Amount of feed consumed (kg) /Weight gain (kg).

Question 3.
(a) Name four forage crops common in Ghana

(b) Outline four ways of preventing cannibalism in poultry production

(c) Explain four condition necessary for obtaining wholesome milk from cattle.



(a)Common forage crops in Ghana
•Pueraria sp (Tropical kudzu)
•Calopogonium sp (Calopo)
•Stylosanthes sp (Stylo)
•Guinea grass
•Elephant grass
• Giant Star grass
•Gamba grass
•Centroseme sp. ( Centro).

(b)Ways of preventing cannibalism in poultry production
•Prevent overcrowding e.g. by providing enough space for birds.
•Ensure adequate ventilation
•Ensure that suitable temperature prevails.
•Reduce light intensity.
•Feed high protein diet / balanced diet / calcium based diet.
•Separate injured birds from healthy ones
•Separate birds of different ages.
•Provide sufficient feed and feeding troughs.
•Provide sufficient water and water troughs.

(c)Conditions necessary for obtaining wholesome milk from cattle.
(i)Use of clean equipment to prevent contamination of milk.
(ii)Good personal hygiene of operator to reduce introduction of disease.
(iii)Maintaining hygienic working environment to prevent contamination.
(iv)Cleaning / disinfecting udder before extracting milk to get rid of filth and pathogens.
(v)High expertise of operator to avoid contamination with blood.
(vi)Clean storage equipment to prevent deterioration of milk.
(vii)Use healthy animals to prevent the spread of zoonotic diseases.

Question 4.
(a)State five ways in which parasites are of economic importance in animal production

(b)Enumerate five function of blood in farm animals.

(c)Discuss five factors that could account for low egg production in poultry.



(a)Ways in which parasites are of economic importance in animal production.
• Reduction in the total yield of animal products / low productivity.
• Increased cost of production.
• Reduction in market value of animal.
• Poor utilization of feed.
• Cause injuries to animals / damage to the skin.
•May provide entry points for disease causing organisms.
• May cause death of animals (i.e. may lead to morbidity of birds).
• Control measures may lead to environmental pollution.
• Reduced growth rate/late maturity.

(b) Function of blood in farm animals.
•Transport of carbon dioxide from the tissue to the lungs.
•Transport of nitrogenous waste from tissues to the liver
• Transport of oxygen.
•Removal of waste products from the body e.g. Kidney.
•Distribution of food nutrients.
•Clotting of blood by thrombocytes in the blood.
•Helps in the erection of penis for sexual intercourse.
•Defence against pathogens / foreign bodies.
•Transport of urea from the liver to the kidneys.
•Transport of hormones from ductless glands to target areas.
• White blood cells produce anti-toxins.

(c)Factors that account for low egg production in poultry
•Poor quality feed.
• Inadequate lighting system.
•Irregular feeding of birds.
•Dirty and inadequate supply of water.
•Incidence of diseases.
•Incidence of pests.
•Poor / non-laying breeds.
•Old birds (birds which have laid eggs over long time).
•Abnormal physiological state of bird.
• High ambient temperature.
•Insufficient feed supply.
•Noise / disturbance.

Question 5.
(a) Define each of the following terms as used in animals’ improvement
(i) Breeding (ii) Meiosis (iii) Mitosis

(b) Give three reasons for promoting snail farming in West African

(c) Explain four ways in which the culling of layers in important in deep litter poultry.



(a) Definition of terms used in animal improvement
(i) Breeding: It is the production of animals with peculiar better traits than existing ones through manipulation of then genetic make-up. OR Breeding is the process of reproduction in which heritable traits are transferred from parents to offspring’s.
(ii) Meiosis: It is a form of cell division in which the chromosome number is halved from the original haploid number.
(iii) Mitosis: It is a process of cell division in which one cell divides into two similar daughter cells and with the same number of chromosomes.

(b) Reasons for promoting snail farming in West Africa.
(i) Snails are sold locally for income.
(ii) They are exported for foreign exchange,
(iii) Snail farming is a source of employment.
(iv) Shells of snails are used in art and craft work.
(v) Shells could be produced and incorporated into animal feed.
(vi) Ensures availability of snails throughout the year.
(vii) Snails provide excellent food/meat.
(viii) Provision of limestone to whitewash walls.
(ix) Medicinal purposes e.g. treatment of asthma and ulcer.
(x) Research/education.

(c) Ways in which the culling of layers is important in a deep litter poultry house
(i) It reduces feed wastage / saves feed.
(ii) It also prevents overcrowding.
(iii) It prevents cannibalism.
(iv) It ensures higher output/egg output.
(v) It reduces egg pecking/cannibalism
(vi) It reduces incidence of disease/spread of disease
(vii) It reduces cost of production:
(viii) Provides birds for sale.

Question 6.
(a) Define the term grazing.

(b) Explain two ways each in which the following factors affect the quality of stored feed.
(i) Storage temperature
(ii) Water content of feed.

(c) Discuss five problems hindering beef cattle production in West Africa.



(a) Definition of zero grazing
It is the process whereby animals do not directly gaze the pasture on the field but the forage is cut and fed to the animals as fresh forage / silage.

(b) Ways in which the following factors affect the quality of stored feed
(i) Storage temperature:
•High temperature could lead to deterioration of feed quality e.g. denaturing of the protein content of food.
•High temperature can lead to spontaneous fire outbreak in stored hay.
•Low temperature could encourage mouldiness.
(ii) Water content of feed
• High water content could result in mouldiness.
• Microbial attack could result from high water content.
• Appropriate water content helps to maintain quality.
• High water content could reduce shelf life of feed.
• High water content could enhance insect infestation.

(c)Problems hindering beef cattle production in West Africa
• Feeds are not available throughout the year.
• Sources of water mostly dry out during the dry season.
•Cattle theft.
• Incidence of pests.
• Incidence of diseases.
•Unavailability of good breeding stock.
• Poor transportation and handling of cattle.
• Poor markets and marketing channels.
•Inadequate storage facilities.
• Inability to cultivate improved pastures / improved natural.
•Frequent bush fires destroy standing hay.
•Inadequate capital / credit facilities.
•Inadequate health care personnel and services.
•Unavailability and high cost of production inputs.
• Problems of unfaithful and inadequate herdsmen.