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WASSCE Animal Husbandry 2012 – Paper 2

WASSCE Animal Husb. 2012 Sect. B


Question 1.
(a) State four factors that are considered in the formulation of ration for farm animals.

(b) Distinguish between cross breeding and line breeding as used in animal improvement

(c) Outline four causes of cannibalism in poultry

(d) Give four reasons for castrating farm animals.



(a) Factors to consider in the formulation of ration for farm animals
Type of Animals: Farm animals of different types, species and breeds differ in nutritional requirement. For instance, ration for monogastrics such as pigs and poultry should be different from ration for ruminants since they differ in their ability to digest feed.
The age and physiological state of the animal: Young animals should take more protein than older ones. Also pregnant and lactating animals would need more protein, vitamins and minerals than dry ones.
Purpose of production/function of the animal: In poultry production, layers require much minerals for egg formation while broilers need much protein and energy feeds to put up weight for the market in the shortest possible time.
Availability of feed ingredients in the area: It is advisable to choose feed ingredients that are common in the locality.
Price and cost of the feed stuff: All things being equal, cheaper but good quality feed should be selected.
The health status of the animals: Different feedstuffs could be prepared for different animals to meet their health requirements.
Availability or otherwise of the storage facility: The quality of ration formulated depends on whether or not there are availability spaces to store them.
Palatability of the feed: The farmer should consider how the animals accept and enjoy the feedstuffs.
Quality and quantity of nutrients in the ingredient: This is important to consider so that nutrient levels can be calculated for balanced feed formulation.
Nutrient requirement of the animal: Animals of the same age and performing similar functions are grouped together and fed with the same ration to minimize cost.

(b) Cross-breeding and Line Breeding compared
Cross Breeding: This is the mating of breeds, varieties or species in order to produce a hybrid. OR Cross breeding is principally used to refer to the reproduction between two distinct conspecific varieties (unrelated strains) of a particular species to produce hybrid.

NB: This is used interchangeable with the term hybridization.
Line Breeding: This is the breeding of animals that share common ancestors but are not closely related. It is another way to help “set” or “fix” desirable traits by introducing genes from other lines into the genetic mix.
NB: Line breeding is different from inbreeding which is the mating of closely related animals or of animals having closely similar genetic constitutions or composition and
Out-crossing: The mating of purely unrelated or only distantly related animals

(c) Causes of cannibalism
• Overcrowding/overstocking
• Poorly ventilated animal housing facility
• Excessive high temperature and high light intensity
• Poor and imbalanced nutrition
• Insufficient feed and water for the stock
• Mixing stock or birds of different ages, breeds, or sex
• Crippled birds mixed with healthy ones.

(d) Reasons / Importance of Castration
• Castration makes animal (castrates) docile and easy to handle since they become quite and gentle.
• Castrated animals grow very fast
• Castration helps to avoid inbreeding among stocks
• In some animals (e.g. goat), castration helps to remove unpleasant odour from the animals.
• By castration, unwanted pregnancies among animals can be avoided.
• Castration renders the meat of castrates’ carcasses tender
• Castration is important in removing or eliminating males with inferior characteristics
• Castration helps to check the spread of veneral diseases among stock
• Castration is important in preventing indiscriminate mating among animals on pasture.

Question 2.
(a) Mention six factors that affect milk yield in cattle

(b) Give two examples of each of the following groups of farm animals:
(i) Non-traditional animal
(ii) Monogastric

(c) Discuss five management practices that should be carried out to ensure successful grasscutter production.



(a) Factors affecting milk yield in cattle
• Breed
•Season of calving
• Geographic region
• Management factors (nutrition, frequency of milking)
• Age and body weight at calving
• Ambient temperature/climatic conditions
• Health/status of the cow
• Physiological state of the cow

Breed: Different breeds of cows have different milk yield capacity. Holstein cow has the highest volume of milk production and the highest total production of all major milk components (i.e. fats, protein and lactose). This is followed by Ayrshire, Jersey, Brown Swiss and Guernsey in that order under ideal conditions.
Season of Calving: Milk yield is greatly influenced by the time of calving. When calving happens at the time of abundance feed, milk yield by cow may be high. In general, however, milk yield is confounded by breed, the stage of lactation and climatic conditions.
Geographic region: The same breed of cow at different geographic region may have different yield of milk. Milk yield of Holstein cow is higher in the temperate regions than in the tropics all things being equal.
Management factors: Management factors such as nutrition and frequency and internal of milking affect the milk yield of cow. Very high plane of cow nutrition and frequent milking increases the milk yield of cows.
Climatic condition/Ambient
Temperature: The climatic condition especially the ambient temperatures have a remarkable effect on the yield of milk of cows. The effect of ambient on milk yield is dependent upon the breed. Holstein and other larger breeds are more tolerant to lower temperatures, whereas the smaller breeds particular the jersey breed are more tolerant to high temperatures.
Age and body weight of calving (i.e. Age and parity): The amount of milk yield produced by the cow increases with advancing lactation (age). This is due in part to an increase in body weight, which results in a larger digestive system and a large mammary gland for the secretion of milk.
Health status of the cow: Animals (cows) suffering from mastitis have an impaired milk yield. The mastitis destroys the secretory tissues of the udder and this lowers the yield of milk.
Physiological status of the cow: The physiological status of the cow affects its milk yield. Pregnancy has ran inhibitory effect on milk yield. Most of the reduction in milk yield occurs after the fifth month of pregnancy. By the 8th month of pregnancy, milk yield may be 20% less

(b) Examples of Non-traditional animal and monogastric animals Ref also from June 2005
Non-Traditional Animal Monogastric Animal
Guinea fowl
Bees Rabbits

(c) Management Practices in Grasscutter Production
• Housing
• Feeding
• Breeding
• Caring for the young
• Diseases and pest control

Housing: Grasscutter is kept mainly by intensive system. There are two methods of keeping grasscutter in intensive system. The first method is the use of hutches similar to that of the rabbit but the hutch can be an all-wire or wood-wire cage. For either hutch the size should be about 120cm (length) by 60cm (breadth) by 60cm (depth). The hutch should be raised about 45cm above the ground to prevent predators from attacking the grasscutter. The second method is the ground housing system where dug-outs are made and cemented for the grasscutter to live in. feeding is done in this method by lifting the cover of the ground house. The ground housing system is closer to the grass-cutter’s original habitat.
Feeding: Grasscutter is a gnawing animal and feeds mainly on herbs and grasses. The
main grasses used for feeding grasscutters are guinea grass, elephant grass although it will eat all kinds of grass. They also feed on crops like the garden eggs, sugar cane, maize, sorghum, young oil palm feedings, cassava (both the tubers and stems) and other succulent parts of trees and shrubs including the roots and barks.
Breeding: The breeding ratio is one male to 4-5 females. However, two males should not be kept in one hutch as they will fight to death. Breeding is done throughout the year and the female is ready to be used in a breeding programme at one (l) year old. The females kindle twice a year and on the average 5 times in 2 years. A litter average about 4-6 young ones although it can range from 1 to 10. A litter could be larger than 10 if the female is flushed at the appropriate time before mating starts. Handling the grasscutter is difficult and it may take some time to breed the animal by artificial insemination,
Caring for the young: The young grasscutter are born without hair and blind but they are easily nursed by their “mother” in the nesting compartment which should be in the dark corner of the hutch. Young ones should be separated from the sire (mother) to prevent the male young ones from being killed.
Young ones should be properly handled (by their tail or by using the sac) since they bite to defend themselves. All forms of overcrowding should be avoided to reduce fighting. Females can be kept in groups of 4-5. More grasses and bones can be introduced into their butch to keep them bury and to distract from chewing the hutch wood.
Diseases and Pest control: Grasscutter is affected by such diseases such as coccidiosis, staphylococcosis, Pneumonia, Paralysis, stomatitis etc. All these diseases are caused poor management practices, accidents and bacterial infections. All these diseases are best controlled by proper management practices can help alleviate the incidence of diseases. Ectoparasites are also controlled by special disinfectants.

Question 3.
(a) Explain four disadvantages of branding cattle

(b) Discuss goat production in West Africa under the following headings:
(i) housing (ii) Feeding
(iii) Diseases and pest (iv) Marketing



(a)Disadvantages of branding cattle
Branding is an identification method which involves creating a number, letters, designs or a combination of these on the skin with a hot metal or chemicals. It associated disadvantages include:
• Branded portion may be a source of infection or bacterial attack on the animal.
• Branding causes severe pain on the animal
• The hides or skin of the animal may be permanently destroyed rendering it unuseful.
• Some of the branding methods like the freeze branding can be slow, more expensive and less predictable (i.e. more care is required in application to achieve desired results).
• If branding is not properly done, hair/fur may regrow leading to invisibility of the branded signs.
• In some areas, the brand on an animal may not be accepted as prima facie (proof of ownership)
• In the hides and leather industry; brands are treated as a defect and can diminish the value of the hides and the skin.

(b) Goat Production in West Africa
(i)Housing and (ii) Feeding Refer from June, 2008 Q5(c)
(iii) Diseases and Pests Control
•Goats are hardy and do not often succumb to diseases which affect other ruminant.
•Goats suffer from anthrax, foot and mouth diseases, mastitis, tetanus, pneumonia and sarcoptic manage and pest des petit.
•Parasites such as tapeworm, liver fluke, roundworm, ticks, lice and mites may also attack them.
•Goats are however resistant to trypanosomiasis diseases and can breed easily in the worse affected zones of this diseases.
•Goat require adequate and strict hygiene in order to turn out good tasty meat and to breed quickly.
•In goat production diseases are controlled by the following measures.
•Obtaining breeding stock and grazing grounds.
• Plan a disease control programme.
• Provision of good management practices which include good feeding, housing, exercising and sanitation.
•Adopt quarantine measures.
•Vaccination against notable diseases
•Ectoparasites are controlled by dipping with recommended drugs at the beginning and end of rainy season.
•Under high pests infestation dipping could be more regular.
•Endoparasites are controlled by deworming.
•Ideally, nanny could be dewormed four (4) weeks before parturition. Also avoiding overstocking and grazing on marshy lands can help control liver-fluke infestation.

(iv) Marketing: Goats can be sold live or slaughtered processed and sold. Any goat to be marketed should passed veterinary examination. In the case of those to be slaughtered they ought to be examined before and after slaughter (post mortem) and certified to be healthy before they are processed for the market.
Processed meat (chevon) are cut into pieces and well packaged usually in clean polythene sheet or boxes and kept in refrigerators for transport to the market. Goats meat (chevon) are sold in parts of equal or mixed and may be advertised or sold to already existing marketing outlets.

Question 4.
(a)State four characteristics of dairy cattle

(b)(i) List four characteristics of a good pasture grass
(ii) Outline three activities that should be carried out for the efficient management of pasture.

(c)Describe five signs of ill-health in farm animal



(a)Characteristics of a dairy cattle Refer from June, 2003
(b) (i) Characteristics of a good pasture grass
• Good pasture grasses should be able to get established easily.
• Good pasture grass should tolerate different climate conditions especially high temperatures and relatively dryer conditions.
• It should withstand considerable level of heavy grazing
•Good pasture grass should tolerate some amount of shade.
• Good pasture grass should be highly nutritive and palatable.
• Good pasture plant should easy tiller and coppice when harvested.
• It should not be too tall beyond the reach of animals.
• It should compete too well with other weeds and plants.
• It should grow well in relatively poor soil and other environmental conditions.
• It should produce large amount of viable seeds for easy propagation

(ii) Activities that should be carried out for the efficient management of pasture
• Controlled burning.
• Adopt grass/legume mixture
• Avoid overgrazing
• Adopt reseeding
• Undertake fertilization
• Practice paddocking
• Control diseases and pests
• Control weeds
• Regularly irrigate the pasture

(c)Signs of ill health in farm animals
• Loss of appetite/anorexia
• Watery eyes/lachrymation
• Profuse salivation of the mouth
• Loss of coat colour
• Ruffled feathers in the case of poultry
• Uncoordinated gait
• Continuous coughing
• Isolation from flock
• Diarrhoea
• Difficulty in breathing
• Listlessness (i.e showing no interest in its environment)
• Nasal discharges
• Abnormal pulse rate
• Emaciation/Loss of weight
• Restlessness
•Extremely low or high temperatures
• Blood stained faeces

Question 5.
(a) State four effects of high temperature on pig production

(b) List four products obtained from processing cow milk

(c) Enumerate four disadvantages of keeping farm animals in a kraal
(d) Describe four methods of controlling pests of farm animals



(a)Effects of high temperature on pig production
• Very high temperatures affect the feed conversion efficiency of pigs.
• High temperatures affects the prenatal and postnatal growth rates of pigs and for that matter all farm animals
• Excess heat (high temperatures) affects the male reproductive ability of pigs. It causes decrease in semen production, semen quality and a reduced sperm count and mobility.
• Very high temperatures also affect the reproductive ability of sows. It shortens the duration of oestrus decreased litter size and a reduced ovulation. It may also increase the rate of abortion and stillbirth among sows.
• High temperatures result in reduction in milk yield in sows.
• High temperatures affect the rate of water and feed intake in pig production.
• Excess heat (high temperature) causes heat stress in pigs because of the large deposit of adipose fats under their skin. This affects the general productivity level of pigs.

(b)Products obtained from processing milk
• Fluid milk • Skimmed milk
• Butter • Cheese
• Whey • Yoghurt

Fluid Milk: Fresh milk is pasteurized. It may be full fats or some cream may be removed and the milk standardized to a known fat content usually about 2.5%. After pasteurizing the milk, it is then homogenized e.g. carnation, ideal milk etc.
Skimmed Milk: This is a milk from which all fats have been removed by a cream separator e.g. milk powder.
Butter: Here, the creamed milk is separated and agitated so that the fat globules will emerge and coalesce. The resulting fluid left is allowed to drain out and what is left out is referred to as a butter or butter milk.
Cheese: The milk is coagulated by adding rennet (i.e. a commercial form of rennin). The milk then forms a curd. The liquid is made to drain out (whey) and its solid is referred to as cheese. After this the cheese is allowed to age to develop a special flavour.
Whey: As described above, it is prepared from coagulated milk which forms a curd. In the formation of the curd after the coagulation process, the liquid which is made to drain out is called whey and it is also highly nutritive.
Yoghurt or Yogurt: This is a milk product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yoghurt are known as “yoghurt cultures”.
Fermentation of lactose (milk sugar) by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and its characteristic tang.

(c)Disadvantages of keeping farm animals in Kraal
• The movement of the animal is restricted.
• The animals are subjected to the vagaries of the whether (i.e. harsh environmental conditions).
• The animals may suffer from thirst if enough water is provided.
• The animals have only few parameters to graze. They may therefore suffer starvation if enough feed is not provided.
• The animals cannot escape from any form of danger e.g. fire.
• If small ruminants are kept in kraal they are susceptible to theft, snake bites and other predators.
• Sometimes certain kraals make the carrying out of some management practices difficult.

(d) Methods of Controlling Pests in farm Animals
• Adopt rotational grazing: With grazing animals, there should be a well-planned rotational grazing on pastures. This would prevent the building-up of pests on the pasture.
• Avoid overcrowding: Overcrowding or overstocking of farm animals should be avoided. This will control the rate of spread of pests among flocks in pens on the pasture.
• Proper management and husbandry practices such as spraying, dipping and disinfecting help to control pests of farm animals.
• Controlled burning of pasture especially in cultivated pasture helps to avoid pest build-up on the field (pasture).
• Dusting of farm animals using recommended powdered pesticides is good to control all pests on animals.
• Dipping is done to control pests on the skins of farm animals.
• The pen or pasture car occasionally be sprayed with recommended insecticides or pesticides every 7-14 days.
• Adopting excellent sanitation practices in animals’ pen can help to control pests on farm animals.
• The life cycles of pests should be studied, so that they can be attacked at the right stages of their growth.
• Appropriately, the secondary of host of pest like snails could equally be eliminated using recommended chemicals.
• Animals from massive infestation area could be quarantined for some time before they are introduced into the herds.
• Grazing of animals on wet pastures or early morning should be avoided.