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WASSCE Animal Husbandry 2011 – Paper 2

WASSCE Animal Husb. 2011 Sect. B


Question 1.
(a)(i) List three sources of animal protein for formulating poultry ration
(ii) State five symptoms of protein deficiency in farm animals

(b)Discuss briefly, four problems associated with feeding of non-ruminant farm animals.



(a)(i) Sources of animal protein for formulating poultry ration.
•Fishmeal (e.g. anchovy)
•Blood meal
•Meat meal
•Egg and other meat product
•Milk and milk by-products

(ii) Symptoms of protein deficiency in farm animals
•Slow growth rate or dwarfism in animals
•Poor body formation
•Lack of energy and general weakness
•Lack of resistance to diseases
•Reduced feed conversion efficiency
• Low birth weight
•Fatty liver
• Marasmus (a concurrent deficiency of protein and carbohydrate).

(b)Problem associated with the feeding of non-ruminant farm animals
(i) Most non-ruminant such as swine and poultry require high percentage (about 75-80%) of carbohydrate which is not easy to obtain from single meal except cereals.
(ii) Most cereals (e.g. corn/maize) which can also supply this high percentage carbohydrate also require supplementation because corn is deficient in the required amount of protein, calcium and the amino acids, lysine and tryptophan.
(iii) Most non-ruminants e.g. swine are more sensitive to dietary deficiencies than ruminants. This is because unlike ruminants most non-ruminants do not have microbial cultures that synthesize required nutrients.
(iv) Non-ruminants such as poultry have crops and gizzards instead of stomachs, have different digestive systems and nutritional requirements than animals such as ruminants.
(v) Non-ruminants have high amount of protein in its ration (about 16 to 20%) but cannot also take urea because it cannot breakdown to release the protein in it. Most of non-ruminant farm animals are also susceptible to ammonia poisoning.
(vi) Each non-ruminant farm animals also have unique anatomy; nutritional requirements of the animals are dictated by each animal’s needs with respect to meat production, milk production, egg production as well as reproduction of the animal and the animal response to stress.
(vii) In feeding of non-ruminants, the use of cotton seed (gossypol) can cause edema of lungs, shortness of breath and paralysis when given large doses.

Question 2.
(a) State two ways in which each of the following practices is important in animal production:
(i) Culling
(ii) Debeaking
(iii) Dehorning
(iv) Hoof trimming

(b) Explain six objectives of animal improving through breeding



(a) Importance of some management practices
•The incidence and spread of diseases are minimized.
• The extra costs of feeding unproductive birds are removed.
• More space is provided for the remaining birds (i.e. it avoids overcrowding)
• A high level of egg production is maintained among flocks.
• It prevents unnecessary loss of birds as a result of death. Sick and unproductive birds could be killed or sold to some income instead of allowing them to die.
• Culling ensures that eggs produced are from healthy birds which can be sent to hatchery.

• It is done to reduce poultry vices such as pecking and cannibalism.
• Debeaking helps to prevent egg eating from among flocks.
•Debeaking prevent the wastage of feed

• Dehorning of animals is important to reduce, if not totally eliminate, injuries to personnel handling them, or other animals.
• Dehorning enable animals to be carted or transported from one place to another more easily.
• Dehorning prevent animals from being entangled to death when grazing.
• Dehorned animal feed in relative comfort.
• Animals are dehorned to reduce the destruction of hides of the animal and thus maintain their value.
• Dehorning enables animals to be worked on more easily (i.e. carry out management practices more easily).
•There is economy of space with dehorned animals (i.e. they occupy less space).

Hoof trimming
• Periodic hoof trimming is necessary for cows to reach their full genetic potential.
• Hoof trimming is done to reduce sore feet which may result in losses in milk production.
•It increases the breeding efficiency of farm animals.
• Hoof rimming is important to avoid severe lameness of farm animals.
•Hoof trimming reduces injuries caused by animals to other animals and to attendants.

(b) Objectives of animal improvement
•To increase the productivity of farm animals.
• To improve the quality of milk and meat products.
•To increase the resistance of animals to diseases.
• To improve the breeding efficiency so that more young ones can be produced and mature easily.
•To improve on the body conformation of animals.
•In pigs, animal improvement is done to reduce fat deposit on the skin.
•To adapt to climatic conditions.
•To meat particular needs of consumers such as tender meat, and high protein meat.
•To shorten the time, it requires for producing these animals

Question 3.
(a) State two functions of each of the following organs in farm animals:
(i) Gizzard (ii) Caecum (iii) Fallopian tube (iv) Stomach (v) Pancreas

(b) Suggest five ways of improving the productivity of local breeds of poultry.



(a) Functions of the following organs of Farm Animals
(i) Gizzard
NB: Gizzard is also referred to as the ventriculus, gastric mill and gigenium
•This specialized stomach constructed of thick, muscular walls is used for grinding and churning up food.
• It serves as storage organ for gizzard stones/grits/gastroliths which aid in the digestion process in some animals.
• The hard muscular wall of the gizzard helps to smoothen and polish the grits swallowed by the animal.
• By the muscular nature of the gizzard, grinded food is easily pushed through the digestive structure or regurgitated in some animals.

(ii) Caecum / Cecum
It is a pouch, usually peritoneal, that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
• It receives faecal material from the ileum and connects to the ascending colon of the large intestine.
• Most mammalian herbivores have a relative large caecum hosting a large number of bacteria which aid in the enzymatic breakdown of plant material such as cellulose.
• Some caecum has small outpocketings called pyloric ceca along their intestine to increase the overall surface area of the digestive epithelium for effective digestion.

(iii) Fallopian Tube: Fallopian tubes are also known as oviducts, uterine tubes and salpinges (singular salpinx).
The fallopian tubes stretch from the uterus of the ovaries and measure about 8IOcm (4 to 6 inches) in length.
•The cilia beat in waves in the fallopian tube helps to transport the egg at ovulation to the uterine activity.
•Other cells in the tube’s inner lining or endothelium nourish the egg and lubricate it’s path during its stay inside the fallopian tube..
• Fertilization of egg and sperm occur in the fallopian tube within 24 to 36 hours after ovulation in most animals,
• The interstitial segment of the tube acts like a muscle sphincter and prevents the egg from being released into the uterus until it is ready for implantation.

(iv) Stomach: This is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestion system which functions as an important organ of the digestive in some animal.
•The stomach is the temporal storage structure of the digestive system of farm animals.
•The stomach linings secrete protein-digesting enzymes and strong acids to aid in food digestion.
•By smooth muscular contortions (called segmentation) by churning and chiming the food before passing the soluble feed into the small intestines.
•The stomach released the hydrochloric acid (HCI) to kill or inhibits bacteria and provides the acidic pH of two for the proteases to work.

(v)Pancreas: The pancreas is a small organ, approximately, six inches, located in the upper abdomen, and adjacent to the small intestine.
•Completes the job of breaking down protein, carbohydrates and fats using digestive juices of pancreas combined with juices from the intestines.
•Secretes hormones that affect the level of sugar in the blood.
•The pancreas produces chemicals that neutralize stomach acids that pass from into the small intestine by using substances in pancreatic juice.
•The pancreas contains islets of Langerhans, which are tiny groups of specialized cells that are scattered throughout the organ.
These cells secrete:
Glucagon: raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood
Insulin: stimulates cells to use glucose
Somatostatin: may regulate the secretion of glucagon and insulin.

(b) Ways of improving the productivity of local breeds of poultry
• Selective breeding of the indigenous poultry birds.
• Cross breeding of the selected indigenous hens with exotic breeds
•Local poultry birds can be breed with naked-neck and fizzle genes especially in the case of chicken to improve their productivity.
• Modification of the environment of the poultry can improve the productivity of the poultry.
• Improving the nutritive value of poultry ration can help to improve the productivity of poultry birds.
• Little improvement in productivity can be made through the use of wild ancestors or primitive relatives of modern stocks.
NB: The red jungle fowl (Gallus Gallus) is a major contributor or ancestor of the domestic fowl.
• Development of native stock through pure breeding.
•Use of local genomes and major genes.
•Gradual replacement of local males

Question 4.
(a) What is a pet?

(b) Explain four reasons for keeping pets.

(c) Discuss the management of cats under each of the following headings
(i) Feeding
(ii) Sleeping place.



(a) What is pet?
Pets are domesticated and selective breed animals, birds or fishes kept for pleasure and companionship and treated with care and affection. Examples of pets include dogs, cats, parrots, pigeons, harmless snakes, alligators etc.
(b) Four reasons for keeping pet Refer from June, 2006 Q4. (c)

(c) Management of Cat
(i) Feeding
Cats nutritional needs are very specific and nutritional quality of cat food is one of the most important factors in cats’ health and longevity.
• Cats enjoy the flavour of dry food like roasted venison and smoked salmon.
• Grain-free cat foods have been developed to address the effect cat foods containing excessive carbohydrates such as corn and wheat.
• Kittens need a premium dry food for the source of the entire necessary nutrient needed to promote the development of strong bones and muscles, promote healthy teeth and gums and to provide a source of protein and energy needed for the intense period of growth which occurs during the all-important first year.
•Cats also recommend a raw meat diet.
• Other cat nutrition expert also recommended canned food only, with dry food reserved as “treats” to be doled out two or three kibbles at a time.
• A clean, fresh sources of drinking water is vital t cats’ health especially kidney health and wealth-being.

(ii)Sleeping place
• Kitten and well grown cats are usually kept in sufficient litter boxes.
• These are considered as the essential homes with cats.
• The rule of thumb is “one + l” (one box per cat plus one extra).
• Cats are fastidious creatures? and some cats use separate boxes for urine and faeces. Most cats will not use a dirty box, so ease in cleaning is an important criterion for choosing a little box.
• The ideal litter box is sturdy, sized right for the cats and easy to maintain.
Litter boxes come in many sizes and forms:
o Plastic Rectangular Tray
o Covered Litter box
o Disposable Litter Boxes
o Self-cleaning Litter box systems
o Disguised Litter Box

NB: In some areas the litter robot is used as the housing place of cats.

Question 5.
(a)Mention four factors that could affects ovulation rate in pigs.

(b)Explain briefly, how each of the factors you have mentioned in (a) above affects ovulation rate in pigs.

(c)Describe four features of the semi-intensive system of keeping pigs.



(a)Factors affecting Ovulation Rate in Pigs
•Genetic variation (Breeds)
•Time of the year
•Social factor
•Age and parity of the sow
• Exogenous hormones (introduction of external hormones).
• Presence or otherwise of steroids antibodies

(b) Genetic Variation (Breeds of pigs): Different breeds of pigs have different ovulation rate. The high-fecundity breeds, are a valuable genetic resource and can be used to improve the fecundity (i.e. litter size)
Nutrition: The old-age practice of flushing that is mating sows while they are increasing body weight is in fact recognition of a relationship between nutrition and ovulation.
Time of year: It has been established that ovulation rate in sow varies with time/season of the year. Photoperiod (length of light or daylight affects ovulation rate of sows positively).
Social factor: In some breeds of sows which are separated from their male counterparts, the introduction of boar causes the sow to ovulate.
Age and Parity: Ovulation rate is affected by age and parity. Very old and very young sows have relatively lower ovulation rate than the middle age sows.
Exogenous hormones: The administration of some reproductive hormones like gonadotropins, Follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) and possibly luteinizing
hormone (LH) all affect the ovulation rate of pigs.
Presence or otherwise of steroids antibodies: The use of steroids antibodies against oestrogens or androgens could increase the ovulation rate of sows.
NB Most of these factors also affect the live birth-weight of pigs.

(c) Features of the semi-intensive system of keeping pigs
•This system combines the approved practices of the extensive and intensive system.
•It is the most convenient management system in most areas in the world if all the approved husbandry practices are followed.
• There are two types of houses used in this system of management which are a permanent building and a portable (movable) house which is built on wheels and easily be pushed from one paddock to another.
• The permanent pig sty has a solid wall of about 1.2m high with non-slip concrete floor with thatched or aluminium sheet covering (roof)
• Between the roof and the side wall is covered with fly-proof netting material
•The feeding troughs and drinkers can be fixed or movable in the sty.
•The sty is sited on well-drained soil with a well-fenced pasture land divided into paddocks which may have wallows and shade trees to provide cool environment for the pigs.
• Some husbandry practices involved in this system involve tethering and free movement of pig but the main ration is fed in the sty.
• Well-planned pastures have stand-by shower bath with non-slip concrete floor for pigs to cool their bodies during the hot periods of the day.

Question 6.
(a)(i) State six characteristics if West African Dwarf Sheep.
(ii) Mention two ways in which sheep is of social importance in Ghana.

(b) List four stages of processing sheep

(c) Explain what happens at each of the stages of processing you have listed in (c)(i) above.



(a)(i) Characteristics of West African Dwarf Sheep (Djallonke/lvory).
• They are usually small and less than 50cm at withers.
•Average weight is between 18-25kg but the improved types may weigh
• Rams are usually horned and ewes polled.
• Males have ruff that reaches to the brisket (chest).
• They have long mane up to the ear are narrow, short and erect.
•They survive well under low level of management.
• Coat colours vary considerably.
•They have relatively high lambing rate and very productive.
•They are resistant to trypanosomiasis

(ii) Social Importance of Sheep in Ghana
• Sheep are used to pay for social dues and dowries.
• Sheep are used for most religious sacrifices e.g. during pacification of gods, Islamic and Christian festivals.
• Sheep are presented usually at funerals by spouses to mourn wit their beloved counterparts.
• Sheep are usually killed for other social gatherings such as get together, naming ceremonies, and wedding ceremonies.

(b) Stages of Processing Sheep
Most farm animals (small ruminant) processing follow the following steps
•Splitting, Washing and Dressing of Carcass
•Refrigeration, storage, handling and transport of carcasses and meat

Starvation: sheep to be slaughtered and processed are starved for about a day. This is to reduce their faecal content in the alimentary canal.
Stunning: This is the process of rendering the animal unconscious (stunned) by a humane method prior to slaughtering. This can be achieved by using direct below to the skull, slaughtering mask, free bullet from pistol, captive bolt pistols with blank cartridges electric stunning method, carbon dioxide stunning. Stunning is done to make sticking (throat-slitting) less hazardous for the operator.
Slaughtering or sticking (throat slitting): This involves severing the major arteries of the neck. This should follow stunning immediately.
Bleeding: This is done basically to remove as much blood as possible from the slaughtered animal as the blood is an ideal medium for the growth of bacteria. This bleeding is better achieved by hoisting the animal with one leg and stuck.
Singeing: This is exposing the carcass to fire so as to remove the hair (de-hairing). When the leather is needed, then this step is skipped to the skinning and flaying.
Flaying/skinning: This involves cutting the animal in a special symmetry to make the removal of the skin of the carcass easily. The skin is cleared around the rent avoiding puncturing it.
Evisceration: This involves the removal of the internal organs of the carcass after cutting open the abdominal cavity.
Splitting, Washing and Dressing of carcass: The breastbone is split down after which the carcass is washed off all blood stains and dressed.
Refrigeration & Storage: The processed meat is refrigerated, stored or transported to the market for sale.