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WASSCE Animal Husbandry 2006 – Paper 2

WASSCE Animal Husb. 2006 Sect. B


1.(a) Explain with examples, five ways in which worms are of economic important to a livestock farmer.

(b)Explain how each of the following methods for controlling worm infestation in livestock.


(a) Ways in which worms are economic important to a livestock
(i) Worms like most endoparasites cause abdominal pain and discomfort to the host.
(ii) Worms infestation decreases the appetite of the host animals
(iii) Worms suck blood from the hosts causing anaemia in host animals
(iv) Endoparasites (worms) deprive their host of food nutrients resulting in general
(v) They can cause gut and intestinal blockage or destruction of other internal organs such as the liver and the intestines
(vi) Worms infestation in livestock can cause internal wounds, lesions, nausea and diarrhoea.
(vii) Parasites (worms) can lower production and cause death of affected animals
(viii) Worm infestations increase the cost of production. The cost of drugs and acaricides all increases production cost.
(ix) Worms infestation can cause a decrease in the market value of the farm animals. This is usually because the animal infested tends to grow lean which attract lower market value.
(x) Excessive worm infestation tends to defer farmers from going into livestock production

(b)Controlling worm infestation in livestock
•Occasional introduction or administration of drugs (acaricides)
• Avoiding all forms of grazing on wet pastures
• Vectors of worms including small snails should be destroyed
• Proper grazing (rotational grazing) and stock movement control should be adopted
•Proper sanitation practices should be adopted at all times
•Quarantine and treat affected animals
•Occasional application of copper sulphate solution on pasture and grasslands.

2. (a) Examples how each of the following factors affect animal production:
(i) Low temperature
(ii) High relative humidity

(b) Explain six ways in which animals grazing in a hot environment maintain a body temperature

(c) Explain each of the following terms used in animal husbandry:
(i) Diet
(ii) Browsing


(a)(i) How low temperatures (cold) affect animal production
• Extremely low temperatures leads to retarded growth due to decrease water intake
• During cold (lower temperature) times there is reduced feed conversation efficiency of farm animals. This is because more nutrients are needed for body maintenance than for growth.
• In animal production excessive low temperatures can result in chilling of young animals even to death.
• In poultry production excessively low temperatures lead to death as a result of chicks huddling together and dying out of suffocation.
• Cold temperatures enhance disease development in livestock and vices in poultry.
•Low temperatures result in lowering of metabolic activities of the animals. This result in increased in feed intake to offset its effect. Increase in feed intake also increases the cost of production.
• Low temperatures result in farmers trying to provide additional facilities like heat sources which go to increase the cost of production.

(ii) How high relative humidity on animal production
•High relative humidity favours the growth of disease pathogens (i.e. disease causing organisms).
• Under high relative humidity pasture growth is favoured positively
• High relative humidity results in mouldiness of animal feed as a result of growth of fungi and algae under misty condition.
• High relative humidity results in stress of animals and this reduces feed intake of farm animals.
• Excessively high relative humidity can cause chilling of young ones soon after parturition. It may also cause chilling of day-old chicks.
• Under high relative humidity, wet litter especially in poultry houses may cause ammonia build-up.

(b) Ways in which animals grazing in hot environment maintain a body temperature
All animals have physiological and behavioural responses to maintain a body temperature
Physiological responses
Increased blood circulation: Blood circulation increases and more blood is shunted to the periphery for convective cooling.
Increased water intake: Animals tend to drink more water to cool themselves. This is usually accompanied by high urine output known as dieresis.
Changes in hydration: Under hot environment where there is heat stress, the animals become hydrated since the water is used for sweating and dieresis. Consequently, the physiological functions are affected and if nothing is done about this prolonged heat stress, the animal may die.
Increased evaporation: There is increased evaporation from the surface of the skin as well as respiratory evaporation such as panting, bellow breathing and open mouth breathing.
Sweating is another means of overcoming heat stress. During sweating large quantities of water evaporates from the skin. In the process, the molecules of water absorb heat from the surface of the skin in order to escape to the atmosphere. However, some species of farm animals like pigs find it difficult to sweat.
Changes in endocrine activity: Under heat stress, there is decrease in thyroxin level. This results in decreased appetite and decreased basal metabolic rate. Adrenalin concentration shoots up. In dairy cattle, prolactin is decreased leading to decrease in milk production. Levels of oestrogen, testosterone and other reproductive hormones decrease hence may adversely affect reproduction.
Behavioural responses
• Shade seeking: Grazing animals move to shady areas to avoid direct sunshine.
•Animals reduce their feed intake to offset high body temperatures.
• Grazing animals decrease daytime grazing and increase night-time grazing.
•There are pastural changes and the animals tend to spread themselves out
•In the case of poultry, birds may lie in loose sand there may be general decrease in body activity.
•Some animals like pigs tend to wallow in ponds or in stagnant waters.
NB. From the question both the physiological and some behavioural activities or responses all apply.

(c) (i) Diet: This is the type and quality of feed/food taken by an animal at a given time to supply the needed nutrients to the body of the animals.
(ii) Browsing: This is the type of feeding in which herbivores feed on plants (usually brush and shrubs) taking both the vegetative and the bark of the shrub.

3. (a) Explain four methods of processing feedstuff for farm animals

(b) State two functions of each of the following nutrients:
(i) Calcium
(ii) Magnesium

(c) Name two sources of each of the nutrients listed in (b) above.


(a) Methods of processing feedstuff for farm animals
Cooking: This is subjecting certain food substances to heat to destroy some poisonous components. For example, when cassava is heated or cooked, its cyanide levels are destroyed and the feed is rendered safe as food/feed to animals.

Pelleting: Feed ingredient are grounded and then forced through sieves to give products of different shapes, sizes, degrees of hardness etc.

Grinding: Grinding is done to feed to achieve medium or moderately fine texture. However, fine grinding sometimes causes stomach ulcers and lungs problems as a result of inhalation.

Fermenting: Fermenting of grains soften them and causes swelling. Apparently, fermenting increases palatability but the grain must be grounded before use in formulating diet.

Drying: Some feed items are subjected to high intensity of sunlight to reduce the moisture content of the feed

(b) (i) Function of calcium in the diet of farm animals
• Calcium is essential for muscle contraction and exocytosis
• Calcium is also important in for conduction of nerve impulses
• Calcium is also essential in the regulation of enzyme activity and formation of cell membrane
•Calcium is actively involved in bone information in a process called “bone mineralization”
NB: Calcium is actively involved in the blood clothing process and help blood of animals to clot.
• In poultry calcium is essential for strong egg shell formation
• Calcium is essential for the effective function of the heat
•It enhances the absorption of other food nutrients and enhances growth of animals.

(ii) Functions of magnesium in the diet of farm animals
(i) Magnesium aid in bone formation and it is involved in the enzyme system and hence biochemical reactions.
(ii) It is involved in the reproductive activities of the farm animals
(iii) Magnesium is a required ingredient of the energy-production process that occurs inside the tiny structures within the cells
(iv) Magnesium is essential in the protection synthesis of DNA and RNA (i.e. deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid),
(v) Magnesium helps to regulate electrolyte balance (i.e. maintenance mineral salts and the general internal environment (homeostasis).
(vi) Magnesium is also essential in bone formation and also involved in the dilation (widening) of blood vessels.

(c) Sources of calcium & magnesium
Nutrient Sources
Magnesium Meat meal, oyster shell, bone-meal, grains, di-calcium phosphate, grounded limestone
Magnesium oxide, magnesium chloride, all organic matter (plants and animals)

4. (a) List three main types of pig and give one examples of each type

(b) Discuss the intensive system of keeping pigs under the following headings: (i)housing
(ii) Feeding

(c) State four benefits of keeping domestic pets.


(a) Types of Pig and Examples
Type Example
(i) Lard Type Pig Poland China, Duroc Jersey, Spotted Poland China, Ham shire, Chester White and Berkshire.
(ii Bacon-Type Pig Tamworth, Yorkshire Landrace
(iii) Pork-Type Pig Lar e White, Yorkshire Bakosi, Ashanti Dwarf
(iv) Potbelly or Miniature
Pigs Vietnamese, Juliani African Pygmy, Yucatan, Ossabaw, Island and Kunekune.
•Potbelly or miniature pigs are usually kept as pets
•Modern meat type or market type is a new type of pigs results from the improvement in the traditional lard type pigs

(b)Intensive System of keeping pigs
(i) Housing
•Here complete in-door husbandry management where pigs are given all they need to grow and breed.
• They require an average floor space of 3m2 for each adult.
• The permanent house or pigsty is build with very thick strong side walls to withstand breakages by frequent learning of the boars and sows.
•The walls should be about 1.2m high and the space between the wall and the roof should be covered with fly proof material.
• The roof can be thatched or built with corrugated aluminium sheets to keep the rooms cool.
• The floor should have a hard fairly rough surface, be non-slippery and non-abrasive so that it is easy to clean with water and scrubbing brush.
• The floor should be building of concrete or pounded earth with good drainage to avoid accumulation of mud in the sty. It must slope gently into gutter inside the sty but the gutter should lead to the outside.
• A wallowing concrete bath can be built in one corner of the house and regularly supplied with clean water.
•An exercise lot may be attached to the sty.
• It is also useful to plant shad tress the houses in order to provide a cool environment.
• It is important to provide separate rooms for all kinds or ages of pigs including fatteners, weaners, farrowing sows, boars and gilts.

(ii) Feeding
•Pigs should be fed on concentrates and highly digestible foods
• Pigs feed largely on a wide range of feed including non-fibrous foods such as grains, seeds and tubers.
•Feeding should be done in feeding and drinking troughs which should always be cleaned
•Feed should not be put on the bare floor. This is because it will result in internal parasite infestation
•Pigs’ rations should always contain three main important types of amino acids —lysine, Cystine and methionine. The sources of these amino acids are in fish meal, milk products and soya bean meal.
•Return should be balanced and be fed in pellets or meal
• Clean water should be available all time
•Meals should be served as wet mesh to reduce feed wastage as dry and dusty feeds are wasted
•The vitamins and mineral levels in ration should be carefully supplied in order to avoid deficiencies.
•Pigs should be fed according to their body weight and energy level in the feed. Rations with high energy level should be fed in small quantities.
• Young and weak piglets should be fed with creep feed which should be highly palatable and digestible and should contain about 18-25% crude protein.

(c) Benefits / Importance of Keeping domestic pets — Refer from June 2005 — Q5 (b)

5.(a) (i) Explain the term pasture.
(ii) State five qualities of a good pasture plant.

(b) State three advantages and two disadvantages of rotational grazing.

(c) Explain four conditions that could promote the production of good silage.


(a) Pasture Explained
i) Pasture is an area that has natural or artificially established grass, legume or herbaceous plants for purpose of grazing by livestock. Plant materials that are used for feeding livestock are known as forage and fodder crops.
(ii) Qualities of a good pasture
Plants — Refer from June 2005-Q6(b)

(b) Advantages and Disadvantages of Rotational Grazing
•Rotational grazing helps manage a resource better and it improves both the production and quality of forage.
•Rotational grazing increases the grazing efficiency of animals than the conventional system
•Rotational grazing helps to avoid all forms of overgrazing on pasture lands and helps to remove all its associated problems.
•Rotational grazing prevents the pests and parasites build-up on the pasture lands.
•Rotational grazing increases the productivity of farm animals.
•Rotational grazing helps to increase the stocking rates and pasture utilization by form animals.
• Rotational grazing helps to avoid selective grazing by farm animals.
•Forage conservation is possible
•High yield of pasture is obtained under rotational grazing
•Rotational grazing decreases cost of production associated with the feeding of farm animals

Disadvantages of Rotational grazing
•It deprives animals of their choice of forage especially to select the palatable ones
•Rotational grazing can increase the cost of production as high cost is involved in the demarcation of the pasture lands
•Rotational grazing requires special skills to manage for better results
•More labour may be required under rotational grazing than continuous grazing

(c)Conditions that could promote the production of good quality silage
•Forage material should have high water soluble carbohydrates and dry matter content of about 23-25% (i.e. harvest the forage when excess to feed requirement and high in quality).
• The materials should be cut at a suitable stage of growth; preferably just before flowering
• Materials with high moisture content must be wilted for at least one day (i.e. forage should be wilted to about 30% DM).
•Chop the forage into short lengths (I-3cm) before ensiling them.
• Fermentable substrate should be added to the chopped forage before ensiling to accelerate fermentation.
•The chopped material should be well compressed to exclude much air.
• pH of 6 — 7 at the beginning of silage preparation should be gradually reduced to pH of 3.8 — 4.2 for quality silage production.
• The temperature range should be between 10-38 0C.
• It should be ensured that protein breakdown is brought to a minimum.
•Ensiling should be done as quickly as possible and should be sealed air-tight until feeding out.

6.(a) Mention five ways by which a poultry farmer could ensure the production of good quality table eggs

(b) Explain four routine management practices carried out on a commercial poultry farm.

(c)Name three breeds of duck

(d) State two characteristics of ducks.


(a) How Poultry farmers could ensure good quality poultry eggs
Farmers ensure the production of the good quality table egg production through the following
• Buy high quality chicks or pullets
•Provide proper housing with adequate ventilation
• Avoid treading of male birds so as to avoid fertilization of eggs
• Provide adequate balanced feed to birds
• Provide clean, cool fresh water to birds regularly
• Collect eggs frequently to prevent cracking and contamination by bacteria
• Ensure that birds are healthy through regular medication and vaccination
• Avoid all forms of stress factor in production

(b) Routine management practices on commercial poultry farms
• Provide litter (wood shaving) of about 10-15 cm deep on the floor space.
• Rake the litter regularly, at least once a week to improve aeration for effective drying of litter. Wet litter favours outbreak of diseases such as coccidiosis •Litter must be charged after every 6-12 months
• Feeding and watering troughs should be washed daily before serving new feed and water.
• Balanced feed as well as clean cool water should be provided at all times.
• Overcrowding of birds should be prevented to avoid poultry vices such as egg eating and cannibalism
• There should be planned vaccination or medication of birds to prevent disease occurrence. In cases of sickness, isolate all sick birds and treat them.
• Birds should be provided with sand-bath to dust birds and control lice and other ectoparasites.
• Eggs should be collected frequently to prevent cracking and contamination by bacteria.
• Broody hens and unproductive birds are culled from the rest of the stock.
•Birds of different age and sex are separated to prevent cannibalism among the stock in the pen.

(c) (i)Breeds of ducks
•White Runners
• White Campbell
• Khaki Campbell
• Pekin
• Aylesbury

(ii) Characteristics of ducks
• Ducks are excellent forages and can feed themselves as they acquire most of the vitamins and animals needed in their foraging.
• Ducks are more difficult to manage in an intensive system.
• They need a lot of space to move and feed on green leaves and ponds to live on.
• Ducks provide more excellent meat and more income than the domestic hen as they need less capital to turn out meat and eggs.
• Ducks are tolerant to a number of diseases and pests.