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WASSCE Animal Husbandry 2005 – Paper 2

WASSCE Animal Husb. 2005 Sect. B



1. (a)Discuss briefly two careers that can be pursued in each of the following areas under animal husbandry
(i) Animal production
(ii) Research
(iii) Agribusiness
(iv) Feed industry

(b) Mention four factors that could lead to poor performance in a chosen career in animal husbandry.

(a) Careers to be pursued in the following areas
(i) Animal Production
• Animal health services (veterinary doctors).
• Ruminant production.
• Non-ruminant production (Hatchery operators).
• Non-traditional animal production (e.g. Animal breeders, Nutritionists).
• Processing and marketing of animal products (sales personnel).
(ii) Research
• Animal Breeders
•Animal Nutritionists
• Animal diseases and pathogen researchers
•Animal genetics and improvement
•Conservation officers.
(iii) Agribusiness
•Feed meal operators (Feed milling)
•Processing and marketing of animal product (sales personnel)
• Farm managers (Animal production)
•Veterinary drugs dealers Wildlife rehabilitator
•Forestry and park rangers.
(iv) Feed Industry
•Feed meal operators (feed milling)
•Animal feed dealers
•Ration formulators
•Animal nutritionist

(b) Factors that could lead to poor performance in a chosen career in animal production
•Poor training programmes.
•Ineffective and inadequate in-service training programmes.
•Inadequate and inefficient attachment programmes to well establish farms.
•Non-continuous practice of a chosen career.
•Insufficient exposures to international best practices and methods.
• Non-preparedness of the personnel to learn more and current development.
• Inadequate and ineffective extension programmes to give the practitioners an updated knowledge in their respective fields.

2.(a) i) What is a disease?

(ii) Name two livestock pests that could be controlled by acaricide

(b) Discuss the disease brucellosis under the following headings:
(i) Casual organism
(ii) Mode of transmission
(iii) Symptoms
(iv) Prevention and control

(c) State five ways in which rainfall affects animal production.


(a) (i) What is a disease?
A disease is any disorder that interferes with the normal functioning of the body of an organism in a negative way.
(ii) Livestock pests that could be controlled by acaricide
• Ticks
• Lice
• Fleas

(b) Brucellosis disease
(i) Cause of bacteria:
Brucella abortus in cattle
Brucella melitensis in sheep and goats and human
Brucella suis in pigs
(ii) Mode of transmission: Transmitted is through ingestion of contaminated food, water, milk and coitus (mating). Also, contaminations due to aborted fetus, vaginal discharge, faeces and fetal membranes.
(iii) Symptoms
•Incubation period of the bacteria is between 2 -7 weeks and results in abortion of fetus which usually occurs in the last half pregnancy.
•A few days to the abortion is characterised with signs of birth
•There is however aches and intermittent fever
(iv) Prevention and control:
• Prevent by burying aborted fetus and isolate mother.
• Vaccinate heifers, cows, rams etc with Brucella strain 45/20.
• In humans treat with high doses of broad-spectrum antibiotic

(c) How Rainfall affects Animal production
• Rainfall affects the distribution of farm animals in a country or a region.
• Rainfall affect the availability or otherwise of feed during particular season of the year.
•Rainfall pattern affects the level of prevalence of disease causing organisms (pathogens) and pest that affect animal production.
• Rainfall affects the relative humidity in the air which has a direct impact in animal production especially poultry production.
• Rainfall and relative humidity leads to mouldiness of feed.
• Rainfall affects the prevailing temperatures which affect feed intake of farm animals.
•Rainfall and relative humidity can cause chilling of young animals soon after parturition and especially the chilling of day old chicks.

3.(a) Explain each of the following term, giving two examples in each case
(i) Monogastric
(ii) Non-ruminant herbivore

(b) Explain five means by which parasite are adapted to their hosts’ environment.


(a)(i) Monogastric: These are animals with one simple stomach which is not capable of digesting cellulose. E.g. include: pigs and poultry.
(ii) Non-Ruminant Herbivores: These are animals with simple stomach and a large caecum which is able to digest complex food (cellulose) by means of micro-organisms. E.g. include: grasscutters, horses, donkeys, rabbit, guinea pigs.

(b) Means by which parasites adapt to their host environment
•Some parasites like ticks, roundworms and tapeworm have mouth parts and mechanisms like rostellum and hooks that enable them to remain attached to their host.
• Most parasites have mechanisms to suck blood from their host for nourishment.
• Most parasites have the ability to lay viable eggs on the skin and even in the ground where the host animals feed.
• The eggs of most parasites can remain viable for a very long time
•Some parasites like ticks and liver fluke can form cyst which remain viable for a long time
•Some parasites have their intermediary host animals (i.e. secondary host such that in the absence of the main host they can still live normally till they get their original host. For example liver fluke uses snails as their secondary host.
•The larvae and nymph of most parasites like roundworms and tapeworms can bury themselves in the mucous membrane lining of the host intestines.
• Most parasites larvae emerged from their eggs can remain inactive for very long time.
•Most parasites have more than are primary host and therefore can adapt to different conditions.
•Some parasites have the ability to migrate easily from one location to another thereby widening the scope of their operational territory.

4. (a) Explain the term hatchability.

(b) i) Mention three factors that could affect the hatchability of eggs.
ii) Explain how each of the factors you have stated in (b) (i) could affect hatchability

(c) i) State five benefits of providing appropriate housing facilities to poultry.
ii) State six precautions to be taken when transporting day- old chicks from a hatchery over a long distance.


(a) Hatchability Explained
Hatchability is the number of fertile eggs which actually hatched out as live young ones as compared to the total number of fertilized eggs set. In other words, hatchability is the number of chicks hatched per the total number of fertilized egg set in an incubator or under a brooding hen.
NB: Hatchability is usually expressed in percentages
i.e. % hatchability = Number of eggs which hatched out
Number of fertilized eggs set
(b) (i) & (ii) Factors that could affect hatchability of eggs.
Eggs handling and storage: Rough handling of eggs meant for hatching before they are set will increase the number of dead embryos which mortality occurring between 4th and 13th day of incubation. Also jarring eggs during incubation may result in the rupture of the eggshell membrane thereby lower hatchability. Also large fluctuations in temperature and humidity during storage have a major adverse effect on hatchability.
Improper fumigation: Excessive and improper fumigation can result in high mortality in developing embryos.
Egg candling: Candling chicken eggs on the 7th and 18th day of incubation may recommend to defect infertile eggs and dead germs. Poor candling of eggs results in low hatchability.
Toxicity / Poor incubator hygiene: If the interior of an incubator is painted or varnished, or if the trays are varnished, the percentage of hatch will be reduced possibly by as much as 25%. This toxicity effect can however be reduced by oxidation (blowing oxygen through) or by applying fumigants (e.g. formaldehyde gas).
Sanitation of the eggs and the hatchery: Eggs used for hatching should be clean and stored in clean containers in a sanitary egg holding room. Eggs contaminated with bacterial organisms usually do not hatch well and this poor quality is reflected in the chicks that do hatch.
Egg selection: Poor quality hatching eggs do not hatch as well as eggs of good quality. The term quality refers to the condition outside the shell, the condition of the shell itself and that of the contents. Eggs of inferior characteristics should not be set as it will decrease hatchability.
Incubation conditions: The principal factors in incubation of eggs include temperature, humidity, ventilation, position and turning of eggs. If those conditions are not properly regulated or carried out it affects the hatchability of eggs.
Age of breeding stock: Very old or Very young breeding stock produce eggs whose fertility status may be doubtful. This may affect hatchability.
Male to female ratio of breeding stock: Improper ratio of males and females breeding stock may result in the production of eggs whose fertility status may be in doubt thereby affecting hatchability.

(c)(i) Benefits of appropriate housing facilities to poultry
•Appropriate housing helps to prevent most non-pathogenic diseases and disorders.
• Appropriate housing enhances good sanitation and prevents the build-up of pathogens.
•Appropriate housing provides enough shade to protect poultry stock from the vagaries of the weather.
•Appropriate housing facilities for poultry helps remove all the possible hiding places of pest and parasite thereby reducing their infestation.
• Appropriate housing facilities provide birds with enough ventilation to remove heat, stress remove dampness, reduce respirations diseases whiles at the same time avoiding any chilling of chicks.
• Appropriate housing for poultry including proper litter systems helps to prevent physical injury and damage to chicks.
(ii) Precautions to be undertaken when transporting day-old chicks from hatchery over long distance
•Birds should be transported in good structures (e.g. plastic or paper box).
• There should be enough ventilation (i.e. free circulation of air).
• There should be adequate provision of warmth to avoid the chilling of the chicks.
• The containers or structures should contain adequate litter to prevent excessive contamination of the chicks.
•There should be enough provision of clean water for the chicks.
• Day old chicks should be vaccinated with strains of Mareks vaccines before they are transported.
• There should be enough glucose in their water to provide the required energy.
•There should be adequate provision of feed for the chicks.

5. a) i) Explain the term grooming as used in animal husbandry.
ii) Name two ectoparasites of dogs.
(b) Give five reasons for keeping pets.
(c) Explain briefly five ways of ensuring that the training of a dog is successful.

(a) (i) Grooming explained
Grooming involves washing, drying and brushing the hair coat of animals to improve blood and lymph circulation and to add to the aesthetic value of the animal.
(ii) Ectoparasites of Dog
• Lice
• Fleas
(b) Reasons or Importance of Keeping Pets
• Pets such as dogs may be kept to provide security in houses, offices borders, mines, security check points of air ports etc. such dogs are usually trained to execute their specific roles/duties.
• Pets may be kept for companionship to prevent loneliness and reduce boredomness.
• Hunters keep dogs and train them for hunting purposes.
•Some pets especially dogs are kept for shepherding blind people across busy roads.
•Some pets such as dogs and cats are kept to control rodents on his farm.
•Some pets such as dogs and parrots can be used to deliver important messages to people.

(c) Ways of ensuring that training of dog is successful
• Set up the right environment for the training of the pet.
•Be patient with the dog undergoing training. Treat dog (pet) fairly and affectionately.
•Teach the pet (dog) all the tricks you want it to know and understand.
•Duration for training should not be too long. Training session should ideally not be more than 15 minutes at a go.
•Use positive reinforcement and rewards to appreciate it whenever it performs it training tricks well.
•Avoid all forms of negative reinforcement. Dogs should only be scold only when they exceedingly misbehave.
• Do not call your dog only to be scold or punished as they would not respond to you again.
• Keep frustration out of the tone of your voice.
•Each training session should include any commands you are trying to teach as well as old commands the pet has already leaned, so that the pet (dog) do not forget the old one.
•Teach or training dogs in a variety of ways such as obedience trial, field tricks and train for specific work.
•Use simple words as no, yes or naughty so that your pet (dog) knows whether or not you appreciate their gestures.

6. a) Explain each of the following terms:
(i) Forage crop (ii) Hay and (iii) Silage
b) State eight characteristics of a good forage crop.
c) Describe the steps involved in the field preparation of hay.

(a) (i) Forages are grasses and legumes that can be used for feeding animals for better management of the environment
(ii) Hay is a general name for a number of dried grasses, flowers forages and other plants used as off-season food for farm animals including horses. OR Hay may be defined as a dry and dehydrated forage materials conserved for use by livestock at a future date.
(iii) Silage is a pasture grass that has been pickled or partially fermented and kept for future use by livestock. Silage is simply fermented fresh green forage preserved for use by livestock at a future date.
(b) Characteristics of a good forage crops (or pasture plants)
•Good forage crop should be adaptable to varied environment.
•Good forage crop should grow well and survive with a minimum of care.
It should resist neglect and abuse.
• A good forage crop should also resist drought to a very large extent. It should continually growth and main its foliage and nutritive value for a long time even during dry spells.
• Good forage crop should easily resume growth again with rains even after drought. Thus it should live through dry season without totally drying off or dying.
• In the case of forage cut such as hay, it should be uniform, timely, and manageable, have good keeping qualities and be nutritious.
•Naturally, good forage crop should be palatable to the animals for which it is grown. This palatability should extend throughout the year.
•Good forage crop should be able to regenerate easily and rapidly after cutting or pasturing.
•The overall yield of a good forage crop should be high.
•Good forage crop should have high nutritional value.
•Good forage crop should not too fall if it is meant to be grazed but not cut and carried.

(c) Steps involved in the field preparation of hay
•The first step in hay preparation is cutting of fodder crops from the field just before flowering. At this stage the crop is leafy, less fibrous, more nutritious and lower water content. Cutting is done at a time that the farmer anticipates sufficient sunlight to cure the swath (i.e. a collection of cut forage-grasses and legumes).
• The second step is to remove weeds and all other foreign materials from the swath.
•It is then left under the sun to dry to a moisture content of about 20%.
• The swath is turned periodically to ensure faster and uniform drying. This can be done using foot fork or a wooden peg toothed haying rakes.
• The well-cured hay is then gathered and baled.
• It is then stored in stacks and under shade in a dry and a well-ventilated room or shed out of a direct sunlight.
•Make sure quality is preserved by avoiding any floor contact and leave all new hay uncovered for a few weeks until it finishes curing.