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WASSCE Animal Husbandry 2002 – Paper 2

WASSCE Animal Husb. 2002 Sect. B

1. (a)List five ways in which water is important to farm animals.
(b)Outline five activities involved in the artificial insemination technique used in animal improvement.
(c)Discuss five factors that predispose farm animals to disease.



(a) Ways in which water is important to farm animals
•It aids digestion of feed.
•It promotes metabolic activities in the body.
•Involved in the formation of products like milk, egg and meat.
•To satisfy thirst/prevent dehydration.
•Helps in regulating temperature.
•Aids in excreting waste products.
•It is source of lubricant.
•Helps to maintain turgidity of body cells.
• It is involved in secretion of hormones and semen.
•Transport nutrients to body tissues.

(b) Activities involved in artificial insemination
•Sterilization of equipment.
•Select proven bull for semen collection.
• Collect semen
• Screen semen for quality.
•Dilute semen.
• Cool to low temperature/cool to appropriate temperature/freezing of semen.
•Storage of semen.
•Restrain the animal
•Introduction/ deposition of screen.
•Selection of female animals on heat.

(c) Factors that predispose farm animals to diseases.
Poor nutrition / poor feeding: When animals are not properly fed with adequate and balanced ration, they become predisposed and susceptible to diseases. When animals, however, are fed with good and balance diets, their immune systems is strengthened and are not easily exposed to the attack by disease pathogens.

Poor sanitation / poor hygiene condition: The sanitary or hygienic conditions prevailing in the pens and the environment of farm animals greatly influence how animals become susceptible to diseases attack. When animals are exposed to poor environmental conditions (poor hygiene and poor sanitation conditions), they become easily predisposed to diseases. The opposite is true.

Physiological injury/ wounds: When farm animals are injured or have wounds on their skin, it becomes a source entry point to disease pathogens. Thus, when animals become injured they become predisposed to diseases.

Chemical poison: When farm animals are exposed to chemical poisonings, they become easily exposed to diseases. When animals take in poisons, their immune system breakdown and they become easily predisposed to diseases.

Poor housing / overcrowding/ poor ventilation: When animals are exposed to poor housing, overcrowding and poor ventilation conditions, they become easily predisposed to diseases. Such poor housing, overcrowding and poor ventilation create stress to conditions and the animals become susceptible to diseases pathogen attack.

Environmental factors / harsh/unfavourable climatic conditions: Environmental and climatic conditions greatly affects the health status of farm animals. When the environmental conditions are harsh and unfavourable, farm animals become easily predisposed to disease pathogen attack.

Hereditary / genetic condition / breed type: The hereditary, genetic condition, and breed type of farm animals greatly affect their health status. Some animals due to their genetic make-up are easily predisposed to diseases. Some animals are generally hardy others are very susceptible to diseases due to their genetic composition.

Hormonal imbalance: Any imbalances in the hormone secretion of farm animals can easily predispose them to diseases. Insufficient and inadequate secretion of particular hormones usually results in the animals becoming easily susceptible to diseases.

Age: As animals are ageing, they become more predisposed to various disease pathogens. The immune system of farm animals tends to decline sharply with age. Older farm animals are easily predisposed to diseases than younger animals.

Sex: Some diseases are sex linked. Hence some diseases easily attack one particular sex or the other. For example, mastitis- a disease of the udder is very common among the female animals than the male animals.

2.(a)Define each of the following terms as used in animal husbandry.
(i) Gene; (ii) Genotype;
(iii) Cross breeding; (iv) Line breeding;
(b) State four functions of the skeletal system in farm animals.
(c) Describe four effects of low ambient temperature on the growth and production of poultry.


(a) Definition of terms
(i)Gene: It is the hereditary unit that is situated at a definite site in a chromosome and transmits character/trait from the parent to the offspring.
(ii)Genotype: It is the sum total of genes (dominant and recessive genes) inherited
from both parents.
(iii)Cross breeding: It is the mating of two individuals from different breeds of
(iv)Line breeding: It is the mating of unrelated individuals within the same breeds of animals.

(b)Functions of the skeletal system of farm anima s
•Provide support for organs/ for the body.
• Protection of delicate and important organs.
•For movement
•Respiration (rib cage attachment)
•Provide shape for the organism
•Storage of calcium and phosphorus
•Site of attachment of muscles
•Blood formation

(c) Effects of low ambient temperature on the growth and productivity of poultry
Chilling leads to death: Excessively low temperature in the poultry house result in poor growth and even death.

Increased feed intake leading to high cost of production: Farm animals tend to consume more energy feeds in excessively cold conditions and this goes to increase the cost of production.

Retarded growth/ loss of weight: Sometimes, there is a general reduction in feed intake by farm animals under extremely low ambient temperature. This results mostly in loss of weight and retarded growth.

Increased mortality through huddling suffocation: Under extremely low ambient temperature, poultry birds tend to huddle together at one point. This may result in suffocation of the birds to death.

Reduction in feed conversion efficiency: Under extremely low ambient temperature, the feed conversion efficiency of farm animals tends to decline steadily. The results in retarded growth and death in extremely cases.

Poor hatchability of incubating eggs: Extremely poor ambient temperature results in poor hatchability of incubating eggs, under such conditions the yolk of the eggs tends to stick to one side of the shell if turning of the eggs is not properly done. This may result in poor hatchability of the eggs.

Reduced egg production (quality and quantity): Under extremely low ambient temperature, poultry birds tend to lay poor quality and quantity of eggs. This results in the laying of few and poor quality eggs.

Stress: Low ambient temperature in poultry houses create stress conditions which may result in overcrowding and poor feeding habits. This may result in poor growth, low productivity of the birds and even death.

3.(a) Mention five ways of reducing stress on farm animals.
(b)State four characteristics of protein concentrates.
(c)(i) List three vocational opportunities available in animal husbandry.
(ii) Outline three vocational training programmes that are available in animal’s husbandry.


(a) Ways of reducing stress on farm animals
•Avoid poor litter.
• Provision of appropriate housing.
•Provision of balanced feed/quality feed.
•Provision of adequate space.
•Provision of adequate clean water.
•Provision of anti-stress drugs.
•Provision of enough feeding and water tough.

(b) Definition of some term.
Protein concentrates: Protein concentrate is any feed ingredient that contains very high levels of protein.
Characteristics of protein concentrate
•They are high in protein.
•They are low in carbohydrate and fats.
•They are low in fibre/ crude fibre.
•They are low in minerals.
•They have high digestibility

(c) (i) Vocational opportunities in animal •husbandry
• Teaching.
•Animal breeding
• Nutrition/ formulation/ feed milling.
•Animal health services/ veterinary, services.
•Pasture management.
• Processing and marketing of animal product.
• Animal production.

(ii) Vocation training programmes in Animal Husbandry
•Training in ruminant and non-ruminant production.
•Training in processing of animals’ products.
•Training in marketing of animals’ products.
•Training in organic manure production.
• Training in pasture management.
• Training in feed formulation
• Training in animal traction.

4.(a) Mention two breeds of each of the following classes of poultry:
(i) Domestic fowl
(ii) Duck
(iii) Turkey
(b)State four factors that should be considered when selecting breeds of grasscutter for production.
(c)Discuss five factors that could be responsible for high mortality in lambs on a sheep farm.


(a) Breeds or Classes of Poultry

Domestic fowl Duck Turkey
PIymouth rock. Aylesbury Broad breasted bronze
Rhode island red. Muscovy Broad breasted white
Cornish. Indian runner / white runner White Holland
Red le horn Khaki Campbell Norfolk/ black
White leghorn Pekin Beltsville smaIl white
Red Sussex. White Campbell

(b)Factors to be considered in selecting breeds of grasscutter for production
• Good adaptation to local environment.
• Good meat quality.
•Fast growth rate.
• Good size in terms of weight at maturity.
• High fertility rate.
•Large litter size.
•High number of offspring weaned per litter.
• Free from diseases / healthy.
•Free from deformity/ wall developed genitals.
• It should have good mothering ability.
•High libido rate.
(c) Factors responsible for high mortality in lambs on a sheep farm.
Failure to vaccinate animals against diseases: When lambs are not vaccinated against diseases, their mortality rate tends to increase.

Occurrence of preventable diseases which are not treated J quickly: When preventable diseases are not quickly treated when they strike, mortality rate tend to be high.

Poor sanitation / poor hygiene condition: Poor sanitary and hygienic conditions in the pens of lambs tend to increase the rate of mortality of lambs.

Poor environmental conditions / unfavourable weather condition: Poor environmental and unfavourable weather conditions tend to increase the mortality of lambs.

Use of contaminated feed: When contaminated feeds are used to feed lambs, morality rate may be high.

Poor quality breed: Some breeds tend to have high lamb mortalities than others.

Introduction of new stock without quarantining: When new stock of lambs is introduced to a new environment without adequately quarantining them, mortality rate tends to be high.

Poor housing conditions: When lambs are kept in poor housing facility. Mortality rate tend to be very high.

Exposure of young ones to environmental stress during grazing: When lambs are exposed to stress conditions during grazing, mortality rate tend to be higher.

Pests/ predators: Invasion of pests and diseases as well as predators can increase the mortality rate of lambs.

5.(a) State three precautions that should be taken to ensure that a slaughtered bull and the dressed carcass are safe for human consumption.
(b)(i) List three wildlife harvesting techniques.
(ii)Enumerate three problems that affect wildlife conservation in Ghana.
(c)Discuss the management of snails under each of the following headings: (i) Housing; (ii) Feeding.


(a) Precautions to be taken to ensure that slaughtered bull and dressed carcasses are safe for human consumption
•Pre-mortem examinations to ensure healthy animals are slaughtered.
•Adherence to withdrawal period of drugs.
•Tools should be sterilized.
•Clean slaughtering environment and personnel
•Inspection of meat by qualified personnel.
•Meat should not be storage and processing.
•Packaging should be done under hygienic conditions
•Use quality packaging material.
•Clean cold storage facilities.
•Avoid adding harmful additives to feed

(b) (i) Wildlife harvesting techniques
•Baiting/ poisoning
(ii) Problems affecting wildlife conservation in Ghana
•Bushfire / bush burning.
•Encroachments (reserves for settlement/ farming activities).
•Excessive demand for bush meat.
•Diminishing vegetation/ deforestation.
•Drying up of water bodies.
•Non- adherence to close season hunting regulations.
• Pollution.
•Inadequate security personnel.

(c) Management of snails
(i) Housing
• Snails should be housed in paddocks, boxes or trenches.
•Ensure they do not escape/ provide proper enclosure.
•Use sterilized-garden soil.
•Keep soil moist
•Provide shade/ grow shade trees to keep environment moist.
• Protect snails from predators.
•Avoid overcrowding by providing sufficient units.

(iii) Feeding
• Snails like succulent vegetable matter/ feed e.g. Cocoyam, lettuce, spinach.
•Provide seed fruits like palm fruits, pawpaw fruits, mango, pear.
•Provide supplementary feeding like flour waste, gari etc.
• Provide ground oyster shell/ snail shell/ calcium grits.
• Provide adequate fresh water.
• Provide adequate feed at night because they are largely nocturnal.

6.(a)Give two examples each of humped cattle and humpless cattle.
(b)Define each of the following term as used in range and pasture management:
(i) Forage crop (ii) Stocking rate
(iii) Pasture rotation
(c) Explain five ways in which goat production contributes to economic development of your country.

Question 6.
Humped cattle Humpless cattle
Zebu cattle Ndama
White Fulani Muturu
Sokoto Gudali West African Shorthorn.
Red Bororo Kuri
Adamawa Herefeed
Sanga Frisian
Aberdeen Angus.

(b) Definition of terms in range and pasture management
(i) Forage crop: Plants grown primarily for the feeding of livestock. They may be grass or legume species. Examples, include: Maize, Cynodon, Centrosema
(ii) Stocking rotation: Movement of animals from one demarcated pasture / paddock to the other in a particular time/ in systematic way or definite order.

(c) Ways in which goat production contributes to economic development
• Source of employment.
•Provision of food.
•Source of income.
•Provision of raw materials for industries.
• Provision of manure.
•Reduces importation of meat